Leadership for the Non Profit Sector Jacqueline M. Pinckney (2024)

Student Publications

Author:Jacqueline M. Pinckney - Edwards
Title: Leadership for the Non Profit Sector

Area: Atlantic International University


Country:
Program: AIU FUNDAMENTALS OF KNOWLEDGE
Avialable for Download: Yes

TABLE OF CONTENTS


  • Introduction
  • DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL ANALYSIS
  • ACTUALIZATION
  • LEADERSHIP
  • LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES
  • GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX
  • INTRODUCTION

    The third sector of American society has been a unique blend of care, compassion for the less fortunate and commitment to the improvement of quality of life. Sometimes, those in the field of social or human services are referred to as “do gooders”. This benevolent attitude has transcended time, controversy and resistance to emerge as one of the world‟s most viable forms of relief for anyone in need. It was the answer to problems not addressed by public and/or business administrations.

    Ultimately, to fully understand the complexities of nonprofit organizational leadership, it is necessary to examine the developmental history of social welfare.

    Once the history is clear, we may then begin to understand the current trend of leadership in nonprofit organizations.

    Our American culture is a virtual melting pot of every civilization in today‟s world. For many years we maintained an open door policy, and people from every nation have been able to settle here and have the opportunity to pursue the „American dream. Our ideals concerning freedom, equality, and justice have pierced the hearts of people worldwide and has been a „calling card‟ (if you please) for those seeking freedom from numerous types of persecution such as:

    § Religious
    § Educational suppression
    § Gender biases
    § Racial injustices
    § Economic and class stratification and more

    Immigrants come filled with dreams and hopes of peace, health, wealth, prosperity, success and happiness for themselves and their loved ones. It is no wonder that our diverse culture is saturated with an international savor. Even our language is permeated with the flavors of many different languages.

    The reverse is also true however; America has penetrated the atmosphere of many countries in the world and seasoned them with the salt of American ideals. It would be very difficult, if possible at all to find many areas that have not been touched by international influences. This includes our varied leaderships and nonprofit organizations.

    DESCRIPTION AND GENERAL ANALYSIS

    The concept and “practice of assisting people in need as we know it in America did not originate in this country but was transplanted from the Old World to the New during the colonial period”1. According to Trattner (1994), “The basic tenets and programs of any social welfare system reflect the values of the society in which the system functions. Like all other social institutions, social welfare systems do no arise in a vacuum; they stem from the customs, statutes, and practices if the past”. We find that ancient Greeks and Romans according to Trattner (1994), regularly talked about munificence towards unfamiliar persons. “Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) spoke of man as a social animal and, as such one who has to cooperate with and assist fellow men.

    He also said it is more blessed to give than to receive.” Trattner (1994) also found that Cicero (106-43 B.C.), the renowned Roman, wrote: “Justice commands us to have mercy on all…, to consult the interests of the whole human race, to give everyone his due,” this was all inclusive. “In fact, the words “philanthropy” and “charity,” and the concepts for which they stand – love of mankind, love of humanity, brotherhood – are of Greek and Latin origin. Philanthropy comes from the Greek words philo, or love and anthropos, or mankind; charity comes from the Latin word caritas (or carus), or love (brotherly love), although there is some evidence that it may be derived from the Greek word haris (or harieis), which technically means grace but may imply brotherly love or its equivalent,” according to Trattner, 1994.

    1 Trattner, Walter I. 1994

    Ancient Jewish culture has also had a tremendous effect on American philanthropic and social welfare ideals. Trattner (1994), cites Jewish credo found in the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament), that reflect benevolence to the sick, the widowed, the disabled, and the poor. Exodus 23:9-11 (Amplified Bible) states, “Also you shall not oppress a temporary resident. For you know the heart of a stranger and sojourner, seeing you were strangers and sojourners in Egypt. Six years you shall sow your land and reap its yield.

    But the seventh year you shall release it and let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat [what the land voluntarily yields], and what they leave the wild beasts shall eat. In like manner you shall deal with your vineyard and olive grove.” Leviticus 19:9 & 10 says, “And when you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap your field to its corners, neither shall you gather the fallen ears or gleanings of your harvest. And you shall not glean your vineyard bare, neither shall you gather its fallen grapes; you shall leave them for the poor and the stranger.

    I am the Lord your God.”2

    The noted prophet Kahlil Gibran of the Islamic faith wrote, “You often say, “I would give, but only to the deserving.” The trees in your orchard say not so, nor the flocks in your pasture. They give that they may live, for to withhold is to perish. Surely he who is worthy to receive his days and his nights, is worthy of all else from you. And he who has deserved to drink from the ocean of life deserves to fill his cup from your little stream. And what desert greater shall there be, than that which lies in the courage and the confidence, nay the charity, of receiving? And who are you that men should rend their bosom and unveil their pride, that you may see their worth naked and their pride unabashed? See first that you yourself deserve to be a giver, and an instrument of giving.

    For, in truth, it is life that gives unto life – while you, who deem yourself a giver, are but a witness.”3

    The Christian-based New Testament reveals the compassionate arms and hands of the LORD towards the same group of people. According to the King James Version of the Holy Bible in Matthews 25:34-40, “Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For when I was an hungered, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungered, and fed thee? Or thirsty, and gave thee drink?

    When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? Or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick or in prison, and came unto thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, verily, I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me4.” This is only one of many references to the poor that are found in the New Testament. Virtually every book of the New Testament makes reference in some form or another to love, charity, care and compassion for others. A great passage of scripture - the 13th chapter of Corinthians, beautifully summarizes all of the above: “Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I would remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing.

    And though I bestow all my goods to feedthe poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away…And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity”. I Corinthians 13:1-8 & 135. Love is the foundation for everything that is done according to Christian beliefs.

    The following actualization is a snapshot in time and illustrates the social welfare timeline in American history. It highlights pivotal points in the development of nonprofit organizations in order to address the dire needs of people.

    The Thompson Chain-Reference Bible 1988 KJV

    ACTUALIZATION


    SNAPSHOTS - AMERICAN SOCIAL WELFARE TIMELINE

    Distinctive Dates in Social Welfare History6

    Chauncey A. Alexander
    B.C. (before Christ)

    1792-1750 King Hammurabi of Babylon issues the Code of Hammurabi, which creates the first code of laws: 3,600 lines of cuneiform, written on a diorite column, include protection of widows, orphans, and the weak against the strong.

    600-500 Buddhism, founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), teaches that all other forms of righteousness "are not worth the sixteenth part of the emancipation of the heart through love and charity."

    500-400 The Talmud, a vast compilation of Oral Laws of Jews, prescribes exactly how charitable funds are collected and distributed, including the appointment of tax collectors to administer the system.

    386-322 Aristotle recognizes man as a social animal who necessarily must cooperate with and assist his fellow man.

    A.D. (after Christ‟s death)

    30 Christianity, a martyr's church during its first 250 years, in its religious writings cites Jesus Christ as teaching people's love for one another as God's will. The writings emphasize sympathy for poor, disabled, and dispossessed people. Recognized in law in the 4th century the Canon Law was codified in the 12th century to provide an elaborate discussion of the theory and practice of charity.

    622 The Koran, the book considered to be the revelation of God to Muhammad and the foundation of the religion Islam, sets forth five duties, the third of which is to give, prescribed alms generously and also to give some alms beyond the minimum.

    1215 King John of England signs the Magna Carta, forerunner of modern civil rights documents.

    1349 The Statute of Laborers, the first national level English law to control the movement of laborers, fixes a maximum wage and treats poor people as criminals, thus influencing colonial poor laws.

    6Alexander, Chauncey A. ACSW, LCSW, CAE, president, Alexander Associates,

    1536 The Act for the Punishment of Sturdy Vagabonds and Beggars, enacted in England, increases penalties for begging and makes the parish the local government unit for poor relief, requiring local officials to provide resources by making voluntary contributions in churches.

    17TH CENTURY


    1601 The Elizabethan Poor Law is enacted by the English Parliament, establishing three categories of people eligible for relief: (1) able-bodied poor people; (2) "impotent poor" people (that is, "unemployables"-aged, blind, and disabled people); and (3) dependent children.

    This law, on which colonial poor laws were based, became a fundamental con-cept in U.S. public welfare.

    1624 Virginia Colony passes the first legislation recognizing services and needs of disabled soldiers and sailors based on "special work" contributions to society.

    ?1642 Plymouth Colony enacts a poor law that directs that relief cases be discussed at town meetings.

    1647 The first colonial Poor Law enacted by Rhode Island emphasizes public responsibility for 11 relief of the poor, to maintain the impotent, and to employ the able, and shall appoint an overseer for the same purpose. Sec. 43 Eliz. 2."

    1657 Scots' Charitable Society, the first American "friendly society," founded in Boston, represents the starts of voluntary societies to meet special welfare needs.

    The first almshouse is established in Rensselaerswyck, New York, followed by one in Plymouth in 1658 and another in Boston in 1660.

    1662 The Settlement Act (Law of Settlement and Removal) is passed by the English Parliament to prevent movement of indigent groups from parish to parish in search of relief. The law makes residence a requirement for assistance, thus influencing American colonies.

    1692 The Province of Massachusetts Bay Acts establish indenture contracting or "binding out" for poor children so they will live "under some orderly family government."

    1697 The Workhouse Test Act is passed by the English Parliament as a means of forcing unemployed people to work for relief; the act is copied by the colonies.

    18TH CENTURY

    1703 The New Plymouth Colony Acts establish systems of indenture and apprenticeships for children.

    1729 The Ursuline Sisters of New Orleans establish a private home to care for mothers and children who are survivors of Indian massacres and a smallpox epidemic.

    1773 The first public mental hospital, Williamsburg Asylum, is established in Williamsburg, Virginia. It is later renamed Eastern Hospital.

    1776 The Declaration of Independence is adopted on July 4 by action of the Second Continental Congress.

    1777 John Howard completes his study of English prison life and inhumane treatment of prisoners; his study influences reform efforts in the United States.

    1787 The U.S. Constitution is completed in Convention on September 17

    1790 The first state public orphanage is founded in Charleston, South Carolina.

    1791 The Bill of Rights is ratified on December 15 by Virginia; 10 of the 12 proposed amendments became part of the U.S. Constitution.

    1797 Massachusetts enacts the first law regarding insane people as a special group of dependents.

    1798 The U.S. Public Health Service is established following severe epidemics in Eastern seaboard cities, which were caused by diseases brought into the country as a result of increased shipping and immigration.

    19TH CENTURY

    1812 The first American textbook on psychiatry, Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind, by Dr. Benjamin Rush, is published.

    1813 Connecticut enacts the first labor legislation to require mill owners to have children in factories taught reading, writing, and arithmetic.

    1817 The first free US school for the deaf-the Gallaudet School-is founded in Hartford, Connecticut.

    1818 New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia Societies for the Prevention of Pauperism are established to help victims of the depression following the War of 1812.

    1819 The U.S. House of Representatives passes a bill that grants the Connecticut Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb six sections of public land.

    1822 The first state institution for deaf people is established in Kentucky.

    1824 The House of Refuge, the first state-funded institution for juvenile delinquents, is founded in New York. The Bureau of Indian Affairs is organized in the War Department. It is later (1849) moved to the Department of the Interior.

    1829 The New England Asylum for the Blind (later the Perkins Institution), the first such private institution, is founded.

    1834 The Poor Law Reform Act, the first major poor law legislation in England since the Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601, influences American social welfare with its emphasis on complete assumption by able-bodied people of responsibility for their own economic security.

    1836 The first restrictive child labor law is enacted in Massachusetts (at the time, two-fifths of all employees in New England factories were aged 7 to 16 years).

    1837 The first state institution for blind people is established in Ohio.

    1841 Dorothea Dix investigates the care provided to insane people. She ultimately is responsible for establishing 41 state hospitals and the federal St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Washington, DC.

    1843 Robert Hartley and associates organize the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, which later merges with the Charity Organization Society of New York to form the present Community Service Society.

    1844 Drapery clerk George Williams organizes the first Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in London.

    1846 John Augustus, a shoemaker in Boston, gives up his work as a shoemaker to devote time to taking people on probation from the courts; from 1841 to 1858, Augustus took 1,152 men and 794 women on probation.

    1848 Pennsylvania establishes the first minimum wage law in the United States. The Communist Manifesto, published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, influences worker demands in the United States for labor and social welfare reforms.

    1850 The first school for "idiotic and feebleminded" youths is incorporated in Massachusetts.

    1851 The YMCA is founded in North America (Montreal). Traveler's Aid (now Traveler's Aid International) is founded by Bryan Mullanphy in St. Louis, Missouri.

    1853 The Children's Aid Society of New York-the first child placement agency separate from an institutional program-is founded by the Reverend Charles Loring Brace.

    1854 A bill that authorized grants of public land to establish hospitals for insane people and that was initiated by Dorothea Dix and passed unanimously by Congress is vetoed by President Franklin Pierce. The rationale for the veto is that the general welfare clause in the U.S. Constitution reserves such care to the states, not to the federal government, an interpretation that establishes federal welfare policy until the Social Security Act of 1935. The first day nursery in the United States opens in New York City

    1855 The first Young Men's Hebrew Association is organized in Baltimore. The YMCA is organized in Boston by retired sea captain Thomas C. Sullivan.

    1859 The Origin of Species, published by Charles Darwin, sets forth the theory of evolution, which provides a scientific approach to the understanding of plant and animal development.

    1861 The U.S. Sanitary Commission, a forerunner of the American Red Cross, is established by the Secretary of War to encourage women's volunteer service during the Civil War

    1862 Freedmen's Aid Societies are established in the North to send teachers and relief supplies to former slaves in the South. The Port Royal Experiment, a precursor to the Freedmen's Bureau, is begun. It is a presidentially authorized but voluntarily funded relief and rehabilitation program to relieve the destitution of 10,000 slaves who have been abandoned on island plantations.

    1863 The New York Catholic Protectory is established. It eventually becomes the largest single institution for children in the country The first State Board of Charities is established in Massachusetts to supervise the administration of state charitable, medical, and penal institutions.

    1865 The Freedmen's Bureau (Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands) is founded as a joint effort of the federal government with private and philanthropic organizations. The bureau provides food, clothing, and shelter for freedmen and refugees; administers justice to protect the rights of black men; protects freedmen and refugees from physical violence and fraud; and provides education. Slavery is abolished by the 13th amendment, which is ratified on December 6.

    1866 The first municipal Board of Health is created by the New York Metropolitan Health Law. The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), which originated in England in 1855, is founded in Boston by Grace Dodge. The YWCA establishes the first boarding house for female students, teachers, and factory workers in 1860 and the first child care facility in 1864. It initiates a history of "firsts" for helping women.

    1867 The state of Ohio authorizes county homes for children.

    1868 The Massachusetts Board of State Charities begins payments for orphans to board in private family homes. The 14th amendment is ratified on July 9; it provides that all people born or naturalized in the United States are U.S. citizens and have rights no state can abridge or deny.

    1869 The first permanent state board of health and vital statistics is founded in Massachusetts.

    1870 The Massachusetts Board of State Charities appoints the first "agent" to visit children in foster homes. The National Prison Association is founded in Cincinnati; it is renamed American Prison Association in 1954 and is now called the American Correctional Association. The Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews of New York City opens; it is the first Jewish institutional home in the United States. Ratification on February 3 of the 15th amendment to the U.S.

    Constitution establishes the right of citizens (except women) to vote, regardless of race, color, or previous servitude.

    1871 The Descent of Man, published by Charles Darwin, applies the theory of evolution to the human species, thus breaking the authority of theologians in the life sciences and providing a basis for a scientific approach to humans and their social relationships.

    1872 The American Public Health Association is founded (the Social Work Section is later formed in 1976). The Dangerous Classes of New York and Twenty, Years' Work among Them, by Charles Loring Brace, exposes the conditions of immigrants and children and helps initiate the adoption movement in the United States.

    1874 Representatives of the State Boards of Charities of Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, and Wisconsin organize the Conference of Boards of Public Charities within the American Social Science Association on May 20. An annual conference, in 1879 it became the National Conference of Charities and Correction in a takeover by the vol-untary agencies.

    It was a precursor to the National Conference of Social Work, renamed in 1917 The organization became the National Council on Social Welfare in July 1956.

    1875 New York State grants per capita subsidies to the New York Catholic Protectory for the care of children who would otherwise be public charges. The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children is incorporated.

    1876 The New York State Reformatory at Elmira is founded; it is a model penal institution for children. Zebulon K. Brockway, a noted corrections reformer and founder of the National Prison Association, is appointed as the first warden. The American Association for the Study of the Feeble-Minded is organized. (The name is changed to the American Association on Mental Deficiency in 1933 and to the American Association on Mental Retardation in 1987)

    1877 The first Charity Organization Society is founded in December in Buffalo by the Reverend S. Humphreys Gurteen. The society operates on four principles: (1) detailed investigation of applicants, (2) a central system of registration to avoid duplication, (3) cooperation between the various relief agencies, and (4) extensive use of the volunteers in the role of "friendly visitors."

    1879 Franklin B. Sanborn, chair of the Massachusetts State Board of Charities, advocates use of foster homes for delinquent and dependent children. The Conference of Boards of Public Charities is renamed the National Conference of Charities and Correction in the first session, independent of the American Social Science Association (1865).

    1880 The Salvation Army is founded in the United States after William Booth established it in London in 1878.

    1881 Clara Barton organizes the American Association of the Red Cross, which is renamed the American National Red Cross in 1893 and the American Red Cross in 1978. Booker T Washington founds the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, a leading black educational institution that emphasizes industrial training as a means to self-respect and economic independence for African Americans.

    1883 The Federal Civil Service Commission is established.

    1884 Germany under Bismarck, inaugurates accident, sickness, and old age insurance for workers, influencing future U.S. worker demands for social welfare measures. Toynbee Hall, the first social settlement, is opened in East London by Samuel A. Barnett, vicar of St. Jude's Parish. Visited by many Americans, it became a model for American settlement houses.

    1885 The first course on social reform is initiated by Dr. Francis G. Peabody at Harvard University. It is Philosophy 11, described as "The Ethics of Social Reform: The Questions of Charity, Divorce, the Indians, Labor, Prisons, Temperance, Etc., as Problems of Practical Ethics-Lectures, Essays and Practical Observations."

    1886 The first settlement house in the United States, the Neighborhood Guild (now the University Settlement), is founded on New York City's Lower East Side.

    1887 The only 19th century National Conference of Charities and Correction "dealing with Indians and Negroes" is organized in 1887 and 1892 by Phillip C. Garrett, who states that the society had a special responsibility toward "the Indian because of being displaced and toward the Negro because of being here through no wish of their own. The first attempt at cooperative financing is made in Denver

    1889 Hull House, the most famous settlement house, is opened on September 14 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr on Chicago's West Side.

    1890 How the Other Half Lives, by Jacob A. Riis, is published. A documentary and photographic account of housing conditions in New York City slums, it helps initiate the U.S. public housing movement.

    1893 In September, Lillian Wald founds the Nurses Settlement, a private nonsectarian home nursing service. In 1895 it moved to become the famous Henry Street Settlement.

    1894 American Charities, by Amos G. Warner, is published. A social work classic, it is the first systematic attempt to describe the field of charities in the United States and to formulate the principles of relief.

    1895 The first Federation of Jewish Charities is established in Boston.

    1896 The first special class for "mentally deficient" people in an American public school is established in Providence, Rhode Island. Volunteers of America is founded.

    1897 The first state hospital for crippled children is founded in Minnesota.

    1898 The first social work training school is established as an annual summer course for agency workers by the New York Charity Organization Society, which in 1904 becomes the New York School of Philanthropy (and later the Columbia University School of Social Work). The National Federation of Day Nurseries is organized.

    1899 The first US juvenile court is established in June as part of the Circuit Court of Chicago. Florence Kelley, who initiated fact-finding as a basic approach to social action, organizes the National Consumers League in New York City The league is a combination of several local leagues, the earliest of which was formed in New York by Josephine Shaw Lowell to campaign against sweatshops and to obtain limits on hours of work for girls. Friendly Visiting Among the Poor by Mary E. Richmond, is published in January as "A Handbook of Charity Workers." The National Conference of Jewish Charities is established in New York to coordinate the developing network of private Jewish social services.

    20TH CENTURY

    1902 Maryland enacts the first US. worker's compensation law, which is declared unconstitutional in 1904. Care of Destitute, Neglected and Delinquent Children, by Homer Folks, founder of the New York State Charities Aid Association, is a major influence on service directions in child welfare. Goodwill Industries of America is founded.

    1903 The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy (now the University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration) is founded by Graham Taylor.

    1904 The National Child Labor Committee, which is organized by a combination of New York and Chicago settlement groups, becomes primarily responsible for the 1909 White House Conference on Children. The New York School of Philanthropy (now the Columbia University School of Social Work) is founded, with a one-year educational program. The National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (later the National Tuberculosis Association and now the American Lung Association) is founded on March 28. Poverty, the classic work by Robert Hunter, is published; it states that at least 10 million Americans, or one out of every eight, are poor.

    1905 Medical social work is initiated with the employment of Garnet I. Elton by Richard L. Cabot, MD, at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

    1906 The National Recreation Association is organized, later becoming the National Recreation and Park Association following a 1965 merger of the American Institute of Park Executives, American Recreation Society, National Conference on State Parks, and National Recreation Association. The Boys Clubs of America is founded in Boston. The first school social workers' programs are introduced in Boston, Hartford, and New York under private agencies.

    1907 The Russell Sage Foundation is incorporated "to improve the social and living conditions in the United States"; it later financed publication of the Social Work Year Book (now the Encyclopedia of Social Work, published by the NASW Press). Psychiatric social work is initiated with the employment of Edith Burleigh and M. Antoinette Cannon by James J. Putnam, MD, to work with mental patients in the neurological clinic of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The National Probation Association is founded (renamed the National Probation and Parole Association in 1947 and the National Council on Crime and Delinquency in 1960).

    1908 The first community welfare council is organized in Pittsburgh as the Pittsburgh Associated Charities. A Mind That Found Itself by Clifford Beers, is published. An expos6 of the inadequacies of mental hospitals, it initiates the mental health movement. The Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America begins to coordinate its network of social services. Workers' compensation is enacted by the federal government; it represents the earliest form of social insurance in the United States.

    1909 The National Committee for Mental Hygiene (now the National Mental Health Association) is founded by Clifford Beers. Jane Addams is elected as the first woman president of the National Conference of Charities and Correction (later the National Council on Social Welfare). England's Royal Poor Law Commission majority report seeks to modify the Poor Law as "the principle of 1834:' defining the relationship of private, voluntary welfare organizations to the public assistance system. The minority recommends breaking up the Poor Law and transferring responsibility to divisions of local government, implying the creation of universal services and anticipating features of a 20th-century welfare state.

    The Juvenile Psychopathic Institute is established in Chicago by Dr. William Healy, on the initiative of Julia Lathrop, to study offenders brought to the juvenile court. The institute initiates delinquency research and examination of children by a professional team. The first White House Conference on Children (concerned with the care of dependent children) is initiated under the sponsorship of President Theodore Roosevelt on the suggestion of James E. West, who later heads the Boy Scouts of America. The Pittsburgh Survey, the first exhaustive description and analysis of a substantial modem city, is begun. The Niagara Movement stimulates the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in May. The NAACP is a broad-based organization with interracial membership.

    1910 The Boy Scouts of America' is founded by William D. Boyce. It originally was started in England by Lord Baden Powell. The American Camping Association is founded to research, develop, and implement a program of inspection and accreditation of camps. Camp Fire Girls (now Camp Fire Boys and Girls) is founded. Catholic Charities is founded. The first social work training program for black workers is started by Dr.

    George Edmund Haynes at Fisk University in Nashville. The National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes (now the National Urban League) is organized by Dr. George E. Haynes and Eugene Kinckle Jones through a union of the Committee for Improving the Industrial Conditions of Negroes in New York (formed in 1907); the National League for the Protection of Colored Women (formed in 1906); and the Committee on Urban Conditions Among Negroes (formed in 1910).

    1911 The First Mother's Aid Law is enacted in Illinois. The first state workers' compensation law that was not later declared unconstitutional is enacted by the state of Washington. The American Association for Organizing Family Social Work is formed to promote the development of family social work. (In 1930 the organization becomes the Family Welfare Association of America and in 1946 the Family Service Association of America. In 1983 the name is changed to Family Service America; in 1995 it is Families International, Inc.) Catholic Big Brothers is founded.Social workers are placed on payrolls of New York's mental hospitals. Aftercare work soon becomes an integral part of the services of such institutions throughout the United States. The National Federation of Settlements is founded. (it became the National Federation of Settlements & Neighborhood Centers in 1959 and the United Neighborhood Centers of America in 1979.)

    1912 The Children's Bureau Act (ch. 73, 37 Stat. 79) is passed on April 9. It establishes the U.S. Children's Bureau as a separate government agency, based on an idea initiated by Florence Kelley and Lillian Wald, Julia C. Lathrop is appointed the first chief. Girl Scouts of the United States of America is founded. Survey Associates, Inc., a membership society combining research and journalism methods for the advancement of general welfare, is founded. Publications are used as "shuttles of understanding"; Paul Kellogg is editor. Survey Midmonthly spans the fields of social work, and Survey Graphic, which is addressed to lay readers, swings wider arcs of social and economic concern.

    1913 Social Insurance, by I. M. Rubinow, advocates a comprehensive social insurance system to protect against sickness, old age, industrial accidents, invalidism, death, and unemployment. The Modern Community Chest movement is begun with the organization of the Cleveland Federation for Charity and Philanthropy as an experiment in federated financing, after a first trial in Denver in 1888. The Community Chests and Councils of America is organized in 1918. The US. Department of Labor and Department of Commerce are established on March 4.

    1914 National Negro Health Week, the first health program for Negroes inaugurated by a Negro, is begun by Booker T Washington. The Joint Distribution Committee for Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (now American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee) is founded.

    1915 The Bureau for the Exchange of Information Among Child-Helping Organizations is founded. Abraham Flexner in his address to the National Conference of Charities and Correction on "Is Social Work a Profession?" states social work does not qualify as a bona fide profession, consequently stimulating continual definition efforts by social workers.

    1916 National health insurance is advocated by I. M. Rubinow, executive secretary of the American Medical Association Social Insurance Commission. The American Birth Control League is founded (becoming the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1939). The first birth control clinic is opened by Margaret Sanger in Brooklyn, New York.The Child Labor Act (ch. 676, 520 Stat. 1060) is passed by Congress on June 25; the act forbids interstate commerce of goods manufactured by child labor and is declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1918.

    1917 Social Diagnosis, by Mary Richmond, is published in May. It is the first textbook on social casework, marking the development of a body of social work knowledge and techniques. The first state department of public welfare is established in Illinois. The National Conference of Charities and Correction becomes the National Conference of Social Work.

    The National Social Workers Exchange (becoming, in 1921, the American Association of Social Workers and merging with other organizations to form NASW in 1955) is organized as "the only social work organization with specific concern for matters of personnel [and] additional functions pertaining to professional standards:' The National Jewish Welfare Board is established (becoming the Jewish Welfare Board in 1977 and the Jewish Community Centers Association of North America in 1990).

    1918 The American Association of Hospital Social Workers is organized. (It becomes the American Association of Medical Social Workers in 1934 and merges with other organizations to form NASW in 1955.) The National Association of Jewish Center Workers is organized. (in 1970 it becomes the Association of Jewish Center Workers and in 1989 the Association of Jewish Center Professionals.)

    The first formal training program for psychiatric social workers is instituted at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. The Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918 (ch. 107, 40 Stat. 617) is passed on June 27. It establishes the first national program that provides physically handicapped veterans with occupational training and prostheses and, in 1920, is extended to provide rehabilitation in civilian life. The Community Chests and Councils of America is founded. (In 1956 it becomes the United Community Funds and Councils of America and in 1970 the United Way.)

    1919 The National Association of Visiting Teachers is formed. (It later becomes the National Association of School Social Workers, which subsequently merges with other organizations to form NASW in 1955.) The Association of Training Schools for Professional Social Work (a forerunner of the American Association of Schools of Social Work, now the Council on Social Work Education) is formed by leaders of 15 schools of social work. It is the first organization concerned exclusively with social work education and educational standards in Canada and the United States.

    1920 The Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy becomes the Graduate School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago.The Atlanta School of Social Service (now the Atlanta School of Social Work) opens in September, originating from Institutes of Social Service sponsored by theNeighborhood Union of Morehouse College from 1919 to 1920. Complete profes-sionalization comes under the directorship of E.

    Franklin Frazier in 1922. The school is incorporated and chartered on March 22, 1924. The National Conference of Catholic Charities is founded to coordinate a network of sectarian social services. The right of women to vote is passed on August 18 as the 19th amendment. The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) is founded. (in 1976 CWLA absorbs the Florence Crittendon Association.)

    1921 The National Social Workers Exchange becomes the American Association of Social Workers (which later merges into NASW), the first national professional association of all social workers. The Social Work Publicity Council is founded as the primary agency for interpreting social problems and social work. The council served as clearinghouse for ideas and materials on public relations and published Channels periodical and special bulletins.

    The Maternity and Infancy Hygiene Act (Sheppard-Towner Act) (ch. 135, 42 Stat. 224), which provides for the first national maternal and child health program, is passed by Congress on November 23. The Commonwealth Fund establishes demonstration clinics for child guidance, initiating the child guidance clinic movement and establishing the essential role of social workers. The Association of Junior Leagues of America is founded. (it becomes the Association of Junior Leagues in 1971 and the Association of Junior Leagues International in 1990.)

    1923 The Jewish Welfare Society of Philadelphia establishes the first organized homemaker service. The first course in group work in a school of social work is introduced at Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, by Clara Kaiser. Education and Training for Social Work is published, detailing the first major study of social work education conducted by James H. Tufts, professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago.

    1924 The Atlanta School of Social Work is incorporated on March 22 as the first Negro school.

    1926 The American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers, originally a section of the American Association of Hospital Social Workers, is organized. (It later merges into NASW)

    1927 The first school of social work is professionally certified by the American Association of Schools of Social Work. The American Association for Old Age Security is organized to further national interest in legislation for aged people; Abraham Epstein is appointed as the director.

    1928 The Milford Conference on November 9 and 10 accepts a committee report defining generic social casework and promulgating the principle that process in social casework and the equipment of the social worker should be basically the same for all fields of practice. The International Conference of Social Work (ICSW) is formed during the first international conference of philanthropists, charity organizers, social workers, government officials, and others in Paris. The organization later became the International Council on Social Welfare.

    1929 The Social Work Year Book (now the Encyclopedia of Social Work) is initiated under the auspices of the Russell Sage Foundation. (Publication is transferred to AASW in 1951 and to NASW in 1955.) The International Committee of Schools of Social Work (ICSSW) is formed by 46 schools in 10 countries. The impetus for the new organization came from the 1928 international conference, in which participants called for social work education as a means of professionalizing social work and improving services. (ICSSW later became the International Association of Schools of Social Work, IASSW).

    1930 The American Public Welfare Association is founded.

    1931 The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to renowned social worker Jane Addams. The Temporary Emergency Relief Administration is established in New York State by Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt as a prototype of federal public relief to unemployed people.

    1932 President Herbert Hoover signs the Emergency Relief and Construction Act (ch. 520, 47 Stat. 709) into law on July 21; a provision of the act enables the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to lend money to states for relief purposes, moving federal government into the field of public relief. Formal accreditation is initiated by the American Association of Schools of Social Work with development of a minimum curriculum requiring at least one academic year of professional education encompassing both classroom and field instruction. The Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds is founded. (In 1978 it becomes the Council of Jewish Federations.)

    1933 The Civilian Conservation Corps Act (ch. 17, 48 Stat. 22) is passed by Congress on March 31. The act is established to meet part of the need caused by the Great Depression by providing work and education programs for unemployed and unmarried young men ages 17 to 23 years. The Federal Emergency Relief Act (ch. 30, 48 Stat. 55) is passed on May 12. It creates the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), which provides 25 percent matching and direct grants to states for public distribution for relief. Social worker Harry Hopkins becomes the director on May 22. (On April 8, 1935, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration is superseded by the Works Progress Administration, which is phased out in 1943.)

    1934 The first licensing law for social workers is passed in Puerto Rico and is a precursor to later state laws. The National Housing Act (ch. 847,48 Stat. 1246) is enacted by Congress on June 27 It is the first law in U.S. history designed to promote housing construction. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis is initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to raise funds for a Warm Springs Foundation, Georgia, treatment center It becomes the successful Annual March of Dimes under Basil O'Connor. Social Work Today, progressive publication of 1930s depression period, is begun by Social Work Today, Inc. This individual and organizational membership group also published professional pamphlets and conducted educational activities; it was discontinued in 1942.

    1935 The Health, Education and Welfare Act (Social Security Act; ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620) is passed by Congress on August 14, providing old age assistance benefits, a Social Security Board, grants to states for unemployment compensation administration, aid to dependent children, maternal and child welfare, public health work, and aid to blind people. Social worker Jane M.

    Hoey is appointed as the first director of the Federal Bureau of Public Assistance, which administers federal-state aid to aged people, blind people, and dependent children under the provisions of the act. The National Conference on Social Work, in its reorganization, recognizes group work as a major function of social work along with social casework, community organization, and social action. The Works Progress Administration is created by presidential executive order on May 6-and the Federal Emergency Relief Administration is terminated-to shift the federal government from home relief to work relief. The administration is committed to provide work "for able-bodied but destitute workers." The National Youth Administration is created by presidential executive order on June 26 as a division of the Works Progress Administration to provide work and school aid under direction of social worker Aubrey Williams.

    1936 The American Association for the Study of Group Work is organized. (in 1946 it becomes the American Association of Group Workers and merges into NASW in 1955.)

    1937 A state-administered program in North Carolina pioneers the development of family planning as part of maternal and child health services. The Housing Act (ch. 896, 50 Stat. 885) is passed by Congress on September I to provide subsidies and credit to states and local governments. It is the first attempt to finance residential accommodations for tenants‟ not exclusively federal employees.

    1938 The Works Progress Administration Act (ch. 554, 52 Stat. 809) is passed by Congress on June 21. The National Association of Day Nurseries, formerly the National Federation of Day Nurseries founded in 1898, is established. (The organization becomes the National Association for the Education of Young Children in 1964.)

    1939 A food stamp plan to dispose of agricultural commodities is begun in Rochester, New York.

    1941 The United Service Organization is incorporated in February to coordinate services provided to armed forces and defense workers by six voluntary agencies: (1) National Jewish Welfare Board, (2) National Catholic Community Service, (3) National Traveler's Aid Association, (4) Salvation Army, (5) YMCA, and (6) YWCA.

    1942 The first U.S. responsibility to provide day care for children of working mothers is initiated through the Lanham Act (ch. 260, 55 Stat. 361), providing 50 percent matching grants to local communities for use in operation of day care centers and family day care homes. The United Seaman's Service is established in the National Maritime Union in September to provide medical, social work, and other services to merchant seamen; Bertha C. Reynolds is named the director. The National Association of Schools of Social Administration (now the Council on Social Work Education) is formed by 34 land grant college undergraduate social work programs.

    1943 The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration is established by 44 nations for postwar relief and refugee settlement. The American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service is established "to promote joint program planning and coordination of national voluntary agency activities on foreign relief and rehabilitation."

    1944 The Servicemen's Readjustment Act (ch. 268, 58 Stat. 284), the "G.I. Bill of Rights:' provides education and training through state-administered payments to educational units; subsistence allowance; loans for purchase or construction of homes, farms, or business property; job counseling and employment placement; and 52 weeks of adjustment allowances. It is liberalized by Amendment 12/21A5 (ch. 588, PL 268). It initiated many men into the social work profession.

    1945 The National Social Welfare Assembly formerly the National Social Work Council formed in 1923, is organized. (It is now the National Assembly of National Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations.) The United Nations is chartered in April, including the Economic and Social Council, to provide "international machinery for the promotion and social advancement of all peoples" and coordinate agencies dealing with social welfare problems, such as the World Health Organization, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, International Labor Office, and International Refugee Organization.

    Common Human Needs, by Charlotte Towle and published by the Federal Security Agency reaffirms the principle of public assistance services as a right and the need for public assistance staffs to understand psychological needs and forces and their relationship to social forces and experiences. (Banned by the federal government in 1951, it is then distributed by the American Association of Social Workers.)The Girls Clubs of America is founded. (The organization becomes Girls, Inc., in 1990.)

    1946 The Hospital Survey and Construction Act (ch. 958, 60 Stat. 1040), or Hill-Burton Act (PL 79725), is passed by Congress, initiating massive construction and expansion of inpatient hospital facilities with significant standards requirements for community participation. The National Mental Health Act (ch. 538, 60 Stat. 421), passed on July 3, recognizes mental illness as a national public health problem.

    The Association for the Study of Community Organization is formed. (It merges into NASW in 1955.) The Full Employment Act (ch. 33, 60 Stat. 23) is passed by Congress on February 20. It establishes a policy of federal responsibility for employment and is not yet implemented. Big Brothers of America is founded. (in 1977 it merges with Big Sisters to form Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America.)

    1948 The American Association of Social Workers and School of Applied Social Sciences of Western Reserve University (now Case Western Reserve University) sponsors a conference that helps define the identity and function of research in social work as distinguished from social research.

    1949 The Social Work Research Group is organized. (It merges into NASW in 1955.)

    1950 Social Workers in 1950, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is the first survey of 75,000 social workers, with 50,000 replies, The Social Security Act Amendments (ch. 809, 64 Stat. 477) are passed on August 28. The amendments establish a program of aid to permanently and totally disabled people and broaden Aid to Dependent Children (later Aid to Families with Dependent Children) to include relatives with whom a child is living. The amendments extend Old-Age and Survivors' Insurance and liberalize other programs. The National Council on Aging is founded.

    1951 Social Work Education in the United States, by Ernest V Hollis and Alice L. Taylor, is published. Generally known as the Hollis-Taylor Report, it is a comprehensive study of social work education "in relation to the responsibility of social work in the broad field of social welfare." The American Association of Social Workers reissues Common Human Needs after the federal government burns its stock in response to pressure from the American Medical Association. The American Association of Social Workers publishes the I the edition of the Social Work Year Book, following 10 editions published by the Russell Sage Foundation.

    1952 The U.S. Children's Bureau grants funds for special projects to develop and coordinate statewide programs for medical and social services to unwed mothers.The Council on Social Work Education is created from temporary study and a coordinating body, the National Council on Social Work Education (in 1946), to unite the school accrediting responsibility of the National Association of Schools of Social Administration and the American Association of Schools of Social Work. The council includes board representatives of schools, faculty, agencies, and the public for educational policy and decisions. The U.S. Committee of the International Conference on Social Welfare is formed.

    1953 The U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare is established on April 11.

    1954 Rutland Corner House in Brookline, Massachusetts, is established as the first urban transitional residence (halfway house) for mental patients. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Shawnee County, Kansas, (347 US. 483) eliminates the 11 separate but equal" doctrine in educational facilities.

    1955 NASW commences operation on October I through a merger of five professional membership associations-(I) American Association of Group Workers, (2) American Association of Medical Social Workers, (3) American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers, (4) American Association of Social Workers, and (5) National Association of School Social Workers-and two study groups(!) Association for the Study of Community Organization and (2) Social Work Research Group. The National Association of Puerto Rican Hispanic Social Workers is organized.

    1957 The Civil Rights Act (PL 85-315, 71 Stat. 634) is passed by Congress on September 9. It is the first such act since 1875; it establishes the Commission on Civil Rights and strengthens federal enforcement powers. NASW publishes the 13th edition of the Social Work Year Book.

    1958 A Working Definition of Social Work Practice, developed by the National Commission on Practice headed by Harriett Bartlett, is published by NASW It establishes the basic constellation of elements of social work practice: values, purpose, sanction, knowledge, and method.

    1959 The Social Work Curriculum Study, by Werner W Boehm, director and coordinator, is published by the Council on Social Work Education. The 13-volume study is a "milestone in the development of effective educational programs for professions."

    1960 The National Committee for Day Care is established to promote day care as an essential part of child welfare services and to develop standards of care. Newburgh, New York, legislates 13 restrictive work requirements for welfare recipients, precipitating a nationwide retrogression in public welfare.

    1961 The Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control Act (PL 87-274, 75 Stat. 572), which recognizes economic and social factors leading to crime, is passed by Congress. The act authorizes grant funds for demonstration projects for comprehensive delinquency programs in ghettos.The Academy of Certified Social Workers is incorporated by NASW to promote standards for professional social work practice and the protection of social welfare clients. It requires a master of social work degree and two years of supervised practice by an Academy of Certified Social Workers member

    1962 The Other America, by Michael Harrington, is published, awakening the United States to the problem of poverty. The Manpower Development and Training Act (PL 87-415) is passed by Congress to provide government financing of training to move unemployed and displaced workers into new fields.

    1963 The Mental Retardation Facilities and Community Mental Health Centers Construction Act (PL 88-164, 77 Stat. 282) is passed on October 31, authorizing appropriations to states that started significant development of community health and retardation services with single state agency administration arid advisory committees with consumer representation. The Civil Rights March on Washington is held at the peak of the civil rights coalition movement.

    1964 The Civil Rights Act (PL 88-352, 78 Stat. 241) is passed by Congress on July 2 and results in significant changes for racial and ethnic groups in institutional health care programs and procedures to ensure equal treatment, in policies to eliminate discrimination in employment and pre-employment, and in policies to open entry oppor-tunities in particular occupations.

    The Food Stamp Act (PL 88-525, 785 Stat. 703) is passed on August 31 to provide cooperative federal-state food assistance programs for improved levels of nutrition in low-income households. The Economic Opportunity Act (PL 88452, 78 Stat. 5088) is passed by Congress on August 20, establishing the Office of Economic Opportunity and calling for the creation of Volunteers in Service to America, Job Corps, Upward Bound, Neighborhood Youth Corps, Operation Head Start, and Community Action programs.

    1965 The Elementary and Secondary Education t (PL 89-10, 79 Stat. 27) is passed on April 11, initiating the first major infusion of federal funds into the US educational system. The act provides aid to economically disadvantaged children, counseling and guidance services, community education, and planning. The Older Americans Act (PL 89-73, 79 Stat. 218) is passed by Congress on July 14, creating the Administration on Aging, the first central body within the federal government dealing with aging. The Social Security Amendments ("Medicare Act"; FL. 89-97,79 Stat. 286) are enacted on July 30 as Title XVIII of the Security Act. The amendments provide federal health insurance benefits for aged (older than 65 years) and entitled people to benefits under Title 11. The amendments establish a compulsory hospital-based program for aged people; a voluntary supplemental plan to provide physicians and other health services; and an expanded medical assistance program (Medicaid) for needy and medically needy aged, blind, and disabled people and their families.

    Medicaid, enacted on July 30 as Title XIX of the Social Security Act, provides federal grants to match state programs of hospital and medical services for welfare recipients and medically indigent populations. Abstracts for Social Workers is initiated by NASW under contract with the National Institute for Mental Health. (The journal is subsequently titled Social Work Research & Abstracts when a primary research journal is added in 1977 and retitled Social Work Abstracts when the two journals are separated in 1994.) Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke Amendments (PL 89-239, 79 Stat. 926), or Regional Medical Programs, provide grants for planning to establish regular cooperative arrangements among medical schools, research institutions, and hospitals to meet local health needs. The amendments require broadly representative advisory committees and involve key social worker leadership.

    The Academy of Certified Social Workers is promoted by NASW as a national standard-setting body for social work practice. Closing the Gap in Social Work Manpower is published by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare in November; it projects escalating demands for social workers and delineates the master of social work and bachelor of social work classifications. It also plays an exceptional role in focusing labor force problems and advocating for the bachelor of social work as an entry professional classification. Griswold v. State of Connecticut (381 US. 479) holds against state fine of Planned Parenthood for providing contraceptive information to married people. It initiates a constitutional concept of privacy formulated by Thomas I. Emerson, which later leads to the Roe v. Wade decision in 1973. NASW publishes the 15th edition of the Encyclopedia of Social Work, as a follow-on to the 14 editions of the Social Work Year Book.

    1966 The Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (PL 89-793,80 Stat. 1438), passed by Congress on November 8, emphasizes total treatment and aftercare rather than criminal prosecution and fragmented efforts, providing pretrial civil commitment in the custody of the Surgeon General for treatment. The Comprehensive Health Planning and Public Health Services Amendments of 1966 (PL 89749,80 Stat. 1180), passed by Congress on November 3, authorizes grants to support comprehensive state planning for health services, labor, and facilities.

    The Veteran's Readjustment Benefits Act (FL. 89-358, 80 Stat. 12) enhances service in the armed forces, extending higher education and providing vocational readjustment. It also emphasizes programs requiring veterans to make contributions to their own educational programs. The Society for Hospital Social Work Directors is formed under the auspices of the American Hospital Association. (In 1993 the society changes its name to the Society for Social Work Administrators in Health Care to reflect changes in health care.)

    1967 In May, the US. Supreme Court in the In re Gault decision rules that timely notice of all charges against a juvenile must be given and that a child has the right to be represented by legal counsel, to confront and cross-examine complainants, and to be protected against self-incrimination in juvenile delinquency proceedings.The Child Health Act (PL 90-248, 81 Stat. 821), passed by Congress on January 2, adds three new types of medical care project grants(1) infant care, (2) family planning, and (3) dental care to social security.

    1968 The National Association of Black Social Workers, the National Association of Puerto Rican Social Service Workers, and the Asian American Social Workers are established. The Southwest Council of La Raza is organized. (in 1973 it becomes the National Council of La Raza, a major national coalition.)

    1969 Richard M. Nixon proposes the Family Assistance Plan in a historic message to Congress. He asserts the welfare system has failed and recommends a federal welfare system with a virtually guaranteed annual income. The House, but not the Senate, passes the plan, which is subsequently reintroduced in 1971. After two years of negotiation with welfare groups, the plan is withdrawn.

    The bachelor of social work degree is recognized for NASW membership as a result of a national membership referendum and is implemented in 1970. The Social Worker's Professional Liability Insurance program is started by the NASW administration; it is transferred to the NASW Insurance Trust in 1985. The Association of American Indian Social Workers is founded. (in 1981 it becomes the Association of Indian and Alaskan Native Social Workers, and in 1984, the National Indian Social Workers Association.)

    1971 The ACTION agency is formed through President Nixon's reorganization plan, centralizing direction of volunteer agencies, including Volunteers in Service to America, Peace Corps, and others, and beginning a pattern of reductions. Congress passes the Comprehensive Child Development Act to provide comprehensive high quality day care and support services to all children. President Nixon vetoes the act.

    The Educational Legislative Action Network (ELAN) is initiated by NASW as a national congressional district legislative structure; ELAN commits the social work profession to legislative advocacy as a professional responsibility. NASW initiates the objective examination, the first national testing of social work knowledge and practice, for the Academy of Certified Social Workers. The National Federation of Clinical Social Workers is established. (in 1976 it becomes the National Federation of Societies for Clinical Social Work.)

    1972 Community-based work and education programs for juvenile delinquents are established by the Massachusetts Youth Services Department to replace juvenile reformatories. Supplemental Security Income (PL 92-603, 86 Stat. 1328) establishes a separate program administration for aged, blind, and disabled populations in the Social Security Amendments of 1972, (PL 92-603, 86 Stat. 1329), which are passed on October 30 and become effective on January 1, 1974.The State and Local Fiscal Act (PL 92-512, 86 Stat. 919), "Revenue Sharing:' becomes a landmark in the federal-state-local relationship, providing states and localitieswith specified portions of federal individual income tax collections to be used for nine specific priority expenditures.

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Act (FL. 92-261, 86 Stat. 103) is passed to grant the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission authority to issue judicially enforceable cease-and-desist orders. The act establishes a quasijudicial agency to implement national policy of employment opportunity without discrimination of race, color, religion, national origin, or gender. The landmark legal principle of "right to treatment" is established in Wyatt v. Stickney (344 F Supp. 387, M.D. Ala., N.D. 1972) by Frank M. Johnson, Jr., chief judge of the U.S. Middle District Court in Montgomery, Alabama.

    The ruling sets forth minimal constitutional standards of care, treatment, and habilitation for patients involuntarily confined to public mental hospitals in Alabama. The National Institute on Drug Abuse is established on March 21 by the Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act (PL 92-255, 86 Stat. 65) to provide leadership, policies, and goals for the total federal effort to prevent, control, and treat narcotic addiction and drug abuse. Professional Standards Review Organizations are initiated on October 30 as part of the Social Security Amendments. This national program of local and state organizations establishes service standards and reviews quality and costs of health services provided to beneficiaries of Medicare, Medicaid, and maternal and child health programs. Through NASW intervention, the program includes social workers in all phases.

    1973 The Health Maintenance Organization Act (PL 93-222, 87 Stat. 914) is enacted on December 29, authorizing federal aid to support and stimulate group medical practice. Through NASW intervention, the act includes social services components and standards. Roe v. Wade (410 U.S. 179) determines that a Texas statute prohibiting abortion violates the due process clause of the 14th amendment. The decision establishes that trimester stages of pregnancy determine state's limits on regulation of abortions. It also affirms the right of privacy. The Children's Defense Fund is founded by Marian Wright Edelman to "provide long-range advocacy on behalf of nation's children."

    1974 The Council on Social Work Education offers accreditation to bachelor of social work programs. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (PL 93-247, 88 Stat. 4), passed by Congress on January 31, initiates financial assistance for demonstration programs for prevention, identification, and treatment of child abuse and neglect and establishes the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA; PL 92-603) initiates extensive job education and experience opportunities for unemployed people.

    1975 The National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 (PL 93-641, 88 Stat. 2225) is enacted on January 4, combining regional medical programs, comprehensive health planning, and Hill Burton programs to establish an integratedsystem of national, state, and area planning agencies with consumer majorities on policy bodies. The Social Service Amendments of 1974 (PL 93-647, 88 Stat. 2337), Title XX of the Social Security Act, are enacted on January 3, initiating comprehensive social services programs directed toward achieving economic self-support and preventing dependence.

    Five levels of services, meeting federal standards, are implemented by states with 75 percent federal subsidy The amendments were initiated and planned as a result of NASW opposition and coalition-building against the Nixon administration's attempt to misuse regulations to reduce social services expenditures. The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142, 89 Stat. 773), enacted on November 29, extends national public education policy to mandate free public education for all handicapped people. The provision for social work services in the public schools by 1978 is included through NASW intervention.

    1976 The Political Action for Candidate Election in initiated as a political action committee of NASW, committing the social work profession to political action as a professional responsibility. In a class action suit, Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr. of the US. Middle District Court in Montgomery Alabama, rules on January 13 that conditions of confinement in the Alabama penal system constitute cruel and unusual punishment where they bear no reasonable relationship to legitimate institutional goals. The Health Professional Educational Assistance Act (PL 94-484, 90 Stat. 2243), enacted on October 12, applies to all health professions and authorizes funding to train social workers in health care, including administration, policy analysis, and social work. This is the first mention of schools of social work in national health legislation.

    The International Code of Ethics for Professional Social Workers, written by Chauncey A. Alexander, is adopted at the Puerto Rico Assembly by the International Federation of Social Workers, which consists of 52 national professional social worker organizations. NASW endorses Carter and Mondale, the Democratic Party candidates for president and vice president, initiating the NASW Political Action for Candidate Election program to raise funds for political action, the first such political effort for a professional social work organization. The Rural Social Work Caucus is initiated to aid rural social workers. Health & Social Work, the first health specialty journal, is published by NASW.

    1977 NASWs journal Abstracts for Social Workers is expanded to Social Work Research & Abstracts.

    1978 The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act (PL 95-266, 92 Stat. 205) is passed on April 24, extending the 1974 act and initiating new programs to encourage and improve adoptions.The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act (PL 95-523, 68 Stat. 590) is passed on October 27 by Congress through the tenacity of Congressman Augustus Hawkins (D-CA). The act reaffirms the right of all Americans to employment and assertsthe federal government responsibility to promote full employment, production and real income, balanced growth, and better economic policy planning and coordination. Social Work in Education, a journal for school social workers, is published by NASW

    1979 The American Association of State Social Work Boards is initiated by NASW; the association consists of state boards and authorities empowered to regulate the practice of social work within their own jurisdictions.

    1980 The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (PL 96-272) restructures child welfare services, mandating reasonable efforts to prevent out-of-home placement.

    1981 The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (PL 97-35, 95 Stat. 357), passed by Congress on August 13, initiates a federal policy reversal of 11 general welfare" responsibility for human services, reducing federal programs (including food stamps, child nutrition, comprehensive employment and training, mental health, and community development) by means of block grants under the guise of decentralization to states.

    The Social Service Block Grant Act (PL 97-35, 95 Stat. 357), passed by Congress on August 13, and part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981, amends Title XX of the Social Security Act to consolidate social services programs and to decentralize responsibility to the states. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are first identified in the United States and soon are defined as an epidemic. New requirements of social workers are initiated: They must further their knowledge of transmission and prevention of the virus, adapt practice techniques, and act on civil rights and service policies.

    1982 The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (PL 97-248, 96 Stat. 324), passed by Congress on September 3, initiates severe reductions in service provisions of Medicare, Medicaid, Utilization and Quality Control Peer Review, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, child support enforcement, supplemental security income, and unemployment compensation. The legislation provides the "largest tax increase ever recommended in a single piece of legislation" It gives Medicare beneficiaries the option to enroll in health maintenance organizations.

    1983 The Social Security Amendments (PL 9881, 97 Stat. 65), passed on April 20, secure the program, providing mandatory coverage of federal employees and employees of nonprofit organizations, withdrawing and reducing benefits such as cost of living delay to calendar year, increasing retirement age, and reducing initial benefits. The Hospital Prospective Payment System replaces Medicare cost reimbursem*nt systems with predetermined payment rates for 468 diagnosis related groups, initiating significant role changes for social workers in discharge planning and increased service coordination requirements.

    1985 The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) encourages states to provide case management as an optional Medicaid service.The National Network for Social Work Managers is formed as a professional society by Robert Maslyn to advance knowledge, theory, and practice of management and administration in social services and the social work profession and to obtain recognition of social work managers.

    1986 The Immigration Reform and Control Act (PL 99-603) provides temporary resident status for undocumented workers who have continuously resided in the United States since before January 1, 1982. The act allows them to become permanent residents after an additional 18-month period. Provisions make it unlawful for any person to know-ingly employ undocumented workers. The objectives of the act are to decrease the number of illegal aliens as current residents, regain control of U.S. borders, and increase the number of legal migrant workers.

    The Tax Reform Act (PL 99-514) reduces and consolidates tax brackets into two basic rates: (1) 15 percent and (2) 28 percent. The law increases the standard deduction for all taxpayers, with the largest increases for heads of households, single parents, and others who maintain households for dependent children. The Earned Income Tax Credit provision significantly increases the credit and raises the income levels at which the credit begins to be reduced and eliminated. NASW establishes the National Center for Social Policy and Practice to analyze practice data and make recommendations on social policy, including information, policy, and education services.

    The Anti-Drug Abuse Act (PL 99-570) creates the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention in the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration. It also includes funding for a White House Conference for a Drug-Free America in fiscal year 1988 and authorizes funding of $450 million over three years to develop drug education and prevention programs through a new Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (PL 99-457) establish a new federal discretionary program to assist states to develop and implement early intervention services for handicapped infants and toddlers (birth through age two) and their families. Seven criteria for 11 early intervention services" include provisions for qualified personnel, including social workers, and individualized family service plans; the states must serve all children.

    1987 The Social Work Dictionary (1st edition), the first compilation of terms related to social work, is published by NASW. The Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (PL 100-77) establishes the Interagency Council on Homeless to use public resources and programs in a more coordinated manner and to provide funds to assist homeless people, especially elderly people, people with disabilities, families with children, Native Americans, and veterans.

    1988 The Family Support Act (PL 100-485) alters welfare provisions in critical ways. The actincludes provisions for improved child support enforcement; state-run education, training, and employment programs for recipients of Aid to Families with DependentChildren; and supportive services for families during and after participation in employment and training. The act also establishes the Job Opportunities in the Business Sector program. Other provisions include guaranteed child care, transitional benefits, and reimbursem*nt for work-related expenses. The Hunger Prevention Act (PL 100-435) expands the federal food stamp program and initiates state outreach, employment, and training programs.

    The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (PL 96-272) requires states to offer prevention services before removing a child from a home. The NASW Communications Network is established by Suzanne Dworak-Peck as an affiliate group to encourage socially conscious media programming and accurate portrayal of social issues and professional social work. The network uses a computerized network of several hundred social workers for technical medial assistance. The Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (PL 100-360) limits yearly out-of-pocket expenses for beneficiaries; adds a prescription drug benefit; extends hospice, respite, and home health benefits; adds a Medicaid buy-in provision; and offers some protection of a couple's assets for nursing home care.

    The act later is rescinded by Congress as a result of senior citizen protests about added premium requirements. The Augustus F Hawkins/Robert T Stafford Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments (PL 100-297) authorize funding for elementary and secondary education, including Chapter I - Financial Assistance; Chapter II - Federal; State & Local Partnership for Educational Improvement; dropout prevention; suicide prevention; and other programs. For the first time, use of pupil service personnel (including social workers and other professionals) is promoted and, in some cases, required. The Civil Rights Restoration Act (PL 100-259) overturns the 1984 Supreme Court Grove City College a Bell decision and clarifies that four major civil rights laws pertaining to gender, disability age, and race must be interpreted to prohibit dis-crimination throughout entire organizations if any program received federal funds.

    1989 Appropriations legislation for fiscal year 1990 for the departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (PL 101-166) include requirements that the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) distribute clinical training funds equitably among five core mental health professions, increasing social work's share. Other provisions include encouraging scholarships for people with master of social work degrees to provide case management to people with AIDS, commending the NIMH Task Force on Social Work Research and Support for "services research:' and providing appropriations for research on rural mental health.

    1990 The social work profession is legally regulated in 50 states and jurisdictions as of January 1, 1990. The Americans with Disabilities Act (42 U.S.C. 1210) is signed into law July 26 and becomes effective in 1992. This comprehensive civil rights law for people with disabilities prohibits employment discrimination (Title 1); discrimination in state and local government services (Title II); and discrimination in public accommodations and commercial facilities (Title III).

    The Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (PL 101-476) increase access for students and their families to needed social work services. The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act (PL 101-381) authorizes $880 million annually to provide emergency relief to metropolitan areas hardest hit by the AIDS epidemic. Other provisions address comprehensive planning, early intervention, treatment of children, and AIDS in rural areas. The NASW School Social Work Specialist Credential is created to provide objective testing and certification of school social workers. NASW transforms its publications department into the NASW Press.

    1991 The NASW Academy of Certified Baccalaureate Social Workers is established to provide objective testing and certification of social workers with a bachelor of social work degree. The Civil Rights Act (S. 1745, PL 102-166) amends the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to reverse a set of Supreme Court decisions that eroded protection of women and people of color in the workplace. Victims of intentional discrimination based on gender, disability, or religion, but not age, can obtain monetary damages.

    1992 The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) Reorganization Act (PL 102-321) transfers the research function in mental health, alcohol, and other substance abuse to the National Institutes of Health and establishes separate state block grants for mental health and substance abuse services. The National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism are moved from ADAMHA to the National Institutes of Health. ADAMHA, renamed the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, includes the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and the Center for Mental Health Services. On June 9, Senator Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI) introduces the NASW National Health Care Proposal as S. 2817, the National Health Care Act.

    Based on NASW universal health care policies, it is the only bill to price out the costs of a new health care system. The Preventive Health Amendments (PL 102-531) include a new Office of Adolescent Health in the Department of Health and Human Services. Among the responsibilities of the new office is the coordination of training for health providers, including social workers, who work with adolescents. The Older Americans Act Amendments (PL 102-375) reauthorizes Older American Act programs for four years and include provisions for long-term care ombudsmen, legal assistance, outreach, counseling, and abuse and neglect prevention programs.

    The amendments authorize a White House Conference on Aging by the end of 1994; grants for training in gerontology in schools of social work; and counseling, training, and support services for caregivers. The Higher Education Amendments (PL 102-325) create new opportunities for reduction and cancellation of federal Perkins loan indebtedness for social work students who seek employment in child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, or other agencies serving high-risk children and families from low-income communities, as well as those who provide early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities.The NASW Press publishes the Social Work Almanac, the first stand-alone compilation of statistics related to social work content.

    1993 The National and Community Service Trust Act (PL 103-82) provides funds for community services, further institutionalizing the federal responsibility for meeting unmet social needs, including educational awards and living allowances for full-time community service. The Family and Medical Leave Act (PL 103-3, 107 Stat. 6), passed on February 5, balances demands of workplace and family needs by requiring that employers of 50 or more employees allow up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave annually for a child's birth or adoption, the care of a spouse or immediate family member, or the employee's "serious health condition"-one requiring either inpatient care or ongoing treatment by a health provider. The Family Preservation and Support Services Provisions (PL 103-66), part of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act, provide $1 billion for a comprehensive approach to improving the child welfare system, emphasizing prevention and early intervention to maintain a natural care system. The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act PL 103-159) is signed by President Clinton on November 24. The bill institutes a five-day waiting period for handgun purchase, to be replaced in five years by a nationwide "instant check" system to ensure that guns are not being sold to criminals.

    1994 The Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 (PL 103-382) reauthorizes the Elementary and Secondary Education Act for five years. Provisions include the Elementary School Counseling Demonstration Act; Title 1, Helping Disadvantaged Children Meet High Standards; Title 11, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Professional Development Program; Title IV, Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities; Families of Children with Disabilities Support Act; Urban and Rural Education Assistance; MultiEthnic Placement Act; and many others.

    The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (PL 103-322) is signed by President Clinton on September 13. In addition to authorizing new prisons and other punishment provisions, the law includes 16 prevention programs, among them grants to combat violence against women, drug treatment programs, and a local crime prevention block grant program. The Violence Against Women Act of 1993, which increases penalties for offenders, authorizes funding for prevention and training, and provides protection for victims, is incorporated into PL 103-322.

    The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (PL 103-259) is enacted on May 26 to combat violence against "abortion clinics." The act makes it a federal offense to restrict access to reproductive health services or to destroy the property of reproductive health services facilities. The NASW Press separates Social Work Research & Abstracts and creates Social Work Abstracts, which publishes abstracts of previously published materials, and Social Work Research, which publishes primary research articles.Person-in-Environment (PIE) System is published by the NASW Press to enable social workers to describe, classify, and code the problems of adult clients.

    7 Chauncey A. Alexander, ACSW, LCSW, CAE, is president, Alexander Associates, 8072 Driftwood Drive, Huntington Beach, CA 92646.

    7 Chauncey A. Alexander, ACSW, LCSW, CAE

    LEADERSHIP

    According to Dr. Myles Monroe (1993), “The purest form of leadership is influence through inspiration”.8 Most would agree that a leader‟s most defining quality is his or her ability to influence the actions and behaviors of others. Dr. Monroe sates that, “you were born to lead but you must become a leader, just as one may be born a male but must become a man.”

    8 Monroe, Myles (1993) 9 Money-Zine.com copyright 2004There are many versions of leadership styles. These are the more common forms according to Money-Zine.com:9

    § Autocratic

    The autocratic leader is likened to a dictatorship because the leader‟s word is “law‟. Typically, the autocratic leader does not include anyone other than him or herself in the process of making decisions. This type of leader is described as manipulative, uses varying types of force and intimidation to gain and maintain control. This style of leadership produces and atmosphere of stress and uneasiness, but also has its positive sides. When a situation calls for an immediate response, the autocratic style may be the best style to put into action.

    Martha Stewart built her entire empire with personal attention to each and every detail. She was meticulous and demanding and very successful. Howell Raines - Newspapers and old industries according to Money-Zine.com, flourished under theautocratic style of leadership. It certainly is not the most comfortable technique to work under, but it is efficient. If you want your employees to participate in the decision-making process, this is not the style for you.

    § Democratic10

    10 Copyright 1998-2007. www.lifescript.com

    The democratic style of leadership is also referred to as the participative style according to Rita Fae. It is a confidence building style that motivates employees to be self-dependent, self-motivating, movers and shakers; to make individual decisions as well as be a participant in a team-oriented decision. This style works well when the staff is incessantly apprised of vital information and incidences that impact their job.

    It is development based not power or administration based. Employees are allowed to use their creativity and reach their own goals based on the information at hand. Rewards as verbal recognition are sometimes done publicly. Allows for open and revolving communication. Staff is allowed to develop decision-making strategies. This enhances the employee‟s ability to function in an environment where decisions must be made on an individual manner and increases the possibility of employee‟s solving their own problems.

    Personal growth is attainable and satisfaction in accomplishing goals and duties. Morale is good and the atmosphere is growth-oriented. In a highly concentrated milieu, the democratic style may not be the best choice. The leader may not haveenough time or latitude to consult with employees. For example, the employee may not have the authority to make certain decisions for the organization. This style builds relationships if the leader is secure in their position. If there is any insecurity the leader will be intimidated.

    11 Copyright 1998-2007. www.lifescript.com Rita Fae

    § Laissez - Faire11

    Laissez-faire is an interesting leadership style, especially when the consideration of the roots is given. Autocratic, bureaucratic, and democratic leadership styles have their origin in Greek terminology and ideals of rulership. Laissez-faire is drastically different because it is a French ideal that originated not as a form of management, but as a counter action to French rulers during the 18th century. The concept is not easily understood and varies greatly from traditional management mindset. Laissez-faire does not seek to establish rule. Instead it originates from opposing government (or management) intervention. Laissez-faire is a „hands off‟ approach that removes power of managerial rule. Managers offer little or no guidance in this style. Employees are given free reign to determine their own goals, accomplishments, and decision making processes. § Laissez - Faire11

    The manager is a guiding hand exercising as little intervention as possible. The manager is not the authority figure. The employee is a self-manager. Manager is utilized on a need basis. Laissez-faire encourages highly developed staff to have astrong sense of personal accomplishment and pride in their work activities. The employee is not constricted from gaining self-education and self-experience, rather it promotes the staff to be personally responsible for their own success. § Laissez - Faire11

    Employees can feel neglected or ignored in this leadership setting, especially when the employee is accustomed to traditional managerial styles. Employees may feel that the manager does not take their job seriously and is not a responsible leader. 12Laissez-faire is unstructured leadership and is considered the weakest form of management style. § Laissez - Faire11

    12 Answers Corporation. 2007. 13 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com § Laissez - Faire11

    § Charismatic13

    Charismatic leaders are often thought of as leaders that are able to use their personal magic to lead others. This charm can be both a blessing and a curse on society. That‟s because charisma can be used for the good of a company or nation – but also for less-than-honorable reasons. § Laissez - Faire11

    Charismatic leaders are able to use their personal charm to get things done. This can be an extremely powerful way to lead others. In fact, such strong charismatic influence can be achieved over others that these leaders can make their followers do some pretty extraordinary things. Charismatic leaders have the ability to sense the gap that exists between what an organization is delivering to its followers and whatthe followers need from an organization. § Laissez - Faire11

    This allows the leader to create a vision of a future state that everyone believes will be better than today‟s environment. The charismatic leader often articulates this vision using metaphors and stories in ways that everyone can understand the vision. The followers see the leaders as one that possesses the ability to visualize the future with clarity. The followers are also able to see how they fit into this future state and believe it will be better than today. Followers support the goals of the organization and leaders more readily because they can see themselves in the future vision. Rather than resorting to coercion, the charismatic leader builds trust among the followers. § Laissez - Faire11

    President John F. Kennedy was arguably the most charismatic President of the United States. He came from a powerful family and was blessed with good looks in addition to his personal charisma. The Kennedy White House became known as Camelot due to the charismatic and stylish couple – John and Jackie. A song „Camelot‟ was written by Alan Jay Lerner, Kennedy‟s Harvard classmate for the Broadway musical, which was a personal favorite of President Kennedy. § Laissez - Faire11

    Charles Manson was the –less-than-honorable example of a charismatic leader. He abused this leadership style and took it places it was never meant to go. Some believe it was a combination of the drug LSD coupled with Manson‟s charismatic personality that allowed him to manipulate others. In the end Susan Atkins along with other members of the Manson family were found guilty of the murder of the26-year-old movie actress Sharon Tate and four others. Charismatic leaders in the workplace can sometimes make a difference for a company. Other companies will do just fine without such a leader. In certain conditions, charismatic leaders can help transform a company. In fact, charismatic qualities are very similar to those found in transformational leadership roles. § Laissez - Faire11

    § Affiliative14

    14 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com 15 Goleman, Daniel 2000 § Laissez - Faire11

    The affiliative leader was first described by Daniel Goleman in connection with the six leadership style he defined in his theory of Emotional Intelligence. As described by Goleman, affiliative leaders can be summarized individuals that are often more sensitive to the value of people than to reaching goals. The affiliative leader prides themselves on their ability to keep employees happy and create a harmonious work environment.

    These leaders attempt to build strong relationships with those being led in the hopes that these relationships will bring about a strong sense of loyalty in their followers. The affiliative leader is a master at building relationships and this leadership style is most effective when there is a need to mend some bad feelings that may have developed in a group or to motivate others during times of heavy workload or stress. § Laissez - Faire11

    As expressed by Goleman, the affiliative leader is best described by the phrase “people come first.”15 If this is the only leadership style used, mediocre results mayquickly follow. That‟s why the recommendation is to use the affiliative leadership style in conjunction with a style that focuses on results. Affiliative leaders are great at providing positive feedback and motivating team members, but they often shy away from dealing with under-performing members of the team.

    Since poor performers can go unchecked in the team, some employees might get the impression that a mediocre performance is good enough. This can lead to a rapid deterioration in overall team performance. § Laissez - Faire11

    Affiliative leaders are also ineffective when the team is faced with complex challenges. In fact, because the leader provides strictly positive feedback that can inadvertently motivate their followers to continue down the wrong path. Examining the pros and cons of the affiliative leadership style should help you get a better appreciation fro why mastering situational leadership skills are so important. To be an effective leader you need to know multiple leadership styles and when is the most appropriate time to stop or start using a particular style. § Laissez - Faire11

    Joe Torre is the classic example of an affiliative leader – and the one often cited by Goleman. He is the former manager of the New York Yankees and celebrated 12 uninterrupted seasons – the longest tenure since Casey Stengel. § Laissez - Faire11

    Just think about the challenges faced by the manager of a professional baseball team. And the New York Yankees are not just any team. Joe Torre was the manager of one of the most talented teams in all of baseball. And with all that talent come a lot of ego-centricplayers. In this setting perhaps one of the greatest accomplishments of a manager is simply holding the team together and building a sense of harmony among teammates. This is a skill that the affiliative leader has mastered – and so has Joe Torre. Joe was quick to recognize the contributions of individual players and express his gratitude for the results we all see in the Win/Loss columns. He left the Yankees November 2007. § Laissez - Faire11

    § Authoritative16

    16 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com § Laissez - Faire11

    Authoritative leaders were first described by Daniel Goleman is connection with the six leadership styles he defined. As described by Goleman, authoritative leaders can be summarized as being experts in their filed of work that are able to clearly articulate a vision and the path to success. The trademark of this type of leader is their ability to mobilize people towards a vision. This leadership style is most effective when a new vision is needed or when a path to that vision is not always clear. One of the interesting aspects of this style is that even though the leader is considered an authority, they allow the followers to figure out the best way to accomplish their goals. § Laissez - Faire11

    Bill Gates leadership abilities are exemplified by this leadership style. He successfully moved Microsoft in the direction he saw the industry going. Even though Mr. Gates removed himself from some of the daily operations of Microsoft, he is still thought of as an industry visionary – an authority. The personal computeris playing a greater role in America and Bill Gates has done much to further its advancement. § Laissez - Faire11 He had a vision, he told the world, and he aligned the resources of Microsoft with that vision.

    One of the many things that John F. Kennedy will be remembered for is his vision concerning the United State‟s space program. On September 12, 1962, while speaking at Rice University, President Kennedy said; “We chose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win…” § Laissez - Faire11

    He then went on to talk about “metal alloys that had not yet been invented” that are “capable of standing heat and stresses several times more than have ever been experienced.” He had a vision of sending a man to the moon and back safely. He even explained how it was going to be accomplished. John F. Kennedy was exhibiting an authoritative leadership style that mobilized the resources of an entire nation towards this single goal. § Laissez - Faire11

    Martin Luther King Jr. is the final example. He is another great leader that was able to mobilize a nation towards a vision. Here is how Dr. King expressed his vision: “So I say to you, my friends, that even though we must face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream rooted in the Americandream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of it creed – we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.” § Laissez - Faire11

    And during this same “I have a dream” speech, Dr. King explained the exact path to this freedom: “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline.” He was speaking with authority, he knew what the future could look like, and he wanted his followers to understand how he wanted to achieve this vision. During this speech, he exemplified the “come with me” characteristic associated with authoritative leaders. § Laissez - Faire11

    § Coaching17

    17 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com § Laissez - Faire11

    If your intellectual capital is weak, or if you‟re simply looking for someone to share their knowledge, then you need to find someone that is good at, or willing to practice the coaching leadership style. That‟s because coaching leaders are excellent at helping others to advance their skills, building bench strength and providing career guidance. § Laissez - Faire11

    As described by Daniel Goleman, the coaching leadership style is best summed up by the phrase “try this.” If you‟re already working for a coaching leader, you‟re in luck. One of the things these leaders do best is to help employees identify both their strengths and weaknesses – and it‟s always helpful to have another share their opinion. Coaching leaders are also able to tie together your career aspirations andpersonal goals. § Laissez - Faire11

    They help you see how everything fits together. And because of this ability and interest in you, they can help you develop a long-term plan to reach your long-term goals. 18 Don‟t think that the coaching leader will hold your hand through all the tough times. They will give you plenty of feedback on your performance and help. But they are also experts at delegating and giving employees assignments that are challenging. To sum it up, they are genuinely interested in helping others succeed. § Laissez - Faire11

    And they do this by focusing on the development of others while using their keen sense of empathy and their own self awareness. One of the interesting findings of Goleman in his research was that the coaching leadership style was the least used style in the workplace. That‟s because many leaders do not believe they have the time to dedicate to helping others. This mindset is unfortunate because the investment made in employees often provides abundant returns to the leader. § Laissez - Faire11

    18 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com § Laissez - Faire11

    If you understand this point, then you shouldn‟t be surprised that the coaching style is very successful in improving results. Superior climate and performance are achieved for two reasons that go beyond the coach‟s investment in training others: § Laissez - Faire11

    1. Coaching leaders provide a very positive workplace environment. § Laissez - Faire11

    2. Employeesknow exactly what‟s expected of them and they understand the overall strategy of the company. Perhaps that biggest drawback of the coaching style is that it takes time and patience. The coach needs to make an up-front investment in an employee in the hopes of reaping the rewards of above average performance later on. § Laissez - Faire11

    The coaching leadership style is most effective when the employees working under the coach are receptive to this help. If you‟re managing employees that are extremely resistant to change or are not interested in learning new things, then you‟ll struggle if you chose this style. It is inappropriate to use this style if you lack the technical expertise to help those you‟re managing. 19 However, it is very rare to find employees that are not interested in improving their performance and bettering themselves. As a coach, you understand it‟s important to supply ongoing feedback on performance. § Laissez - Faire11

    It‟s equally important to do this in a manner that motivates the employees and does not create fear. The captivating aspect of the coaching leadership style is that it is used so infrequently, yet it is extremely effective in almost any situation. Ultimately, your success will be measured by the following messages conveyed by you: I believe in your abilities. I‟m willing to invest my time in you. In exchange for this trust and investment, I expect you to try your hardest. § Laissez - Faire11

    19 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com § Laissez - Faire11

    It is very difficult to find concise examples of modern coaches. The best examples of this particular style would be leaders that were labeled as “famous” mentors or those involved in well known mentoring pairings. The following list of mentoring pairings provides examples of leaders exhibiting the coaching leadership style:

    Red Holtzman (NBA coach) mentored Phil Jackson (NBA coach)

    Andrew Carnegie (philanthropist) mentored Charles Schwab (first president of US Steel)

    Eddy Merckx (five-time Tour de France winner) mentored Lance

    Armstrong (seven-time Tour de France winner)

    Robert Patterson (CEO, National Cash Register) mentored Thomas Watson (founder of IBM)20

    20 Copyright 2005-2007 Money-Zine.com (all of the above leadership information was taken from this site)

    LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES

    The noted author and presenter Franklin Covey in one of his many leader building presentations, paved the following path: § Laissez - Faire11

    § 21Learn how to effectively lead your team.
    § Establish guiding principles with clarity and complete understanding.
    § Create a vision for each individual team member-who, in turn, will be excited to help the team succeed.
    § Discover how to eliminate ambiguity in your feedback.
    § Empower your team to make decisions to support the team’s objectives.
    § Learn how to lead with complete trust.
    § Build win-win agreements with your team.

    21 Covey, Franklin. © 2006-2007 • © Franklin Covey Coaching • All rights reserved. 22 Monroe, Myles (1993)

    Dr. Monroe made the distinction between managers and leaders. 22“This difference can be expressed in the saying, “There are four types of people in the world; those who watch things happen, those who let things happen, those who ask what happened, and those who make things happen. Leaders are those who make things happen. Managers are in the other groups. Leaders are those who master the context, mangers are those who surrender to it. All leaders were managers on their way to leadership. It is the natural path of progression. However, not all managers become leaders.”

    Dr. Monroe goes on to use the parable of the shrewd accountant found in the book of Luke chapter 16, to demonstrate the disparity in responsibility between leaders and managers. This biblical story is about a rich man who had a less than honorable manager of his estate. The people lodged complaints against the steward or manager and these complaints were brought to the attention of the master or rich man. The rich man found that his manager had squandered his possessions and after confronting his manager, he fired him from his position. Verses 10 and 12 of chapter 16 illustrate a principle spoken by Jesus that emphasizes “the conditions of transition from manager to leader:

    “He who is faithful in a very little [thing] is faithful also in much, and he who is dishonest and unjust in a very little [thing] is dishonest and unjust also in much. And if you have not proved faithful in that which belongs to another [whether God or man], who will give you that which is your own [that is, the true riches].”23 In this instance, another word for faithful is trustworthy. Warren Bennis, professor of Business Administration at the University of California is cited by Dr. Monroe for his comparative analysis of manager vs. leader – check yourself and determine what you are:

    23 The Amplified Bible, 1987

    § The manager administers, the leader innovates.
    § The manager is a copy, the leader is an original.
    § The manager maintains, the leader develops.
    § The manager focuses on systems and structure, the leader focuses on people.
    § The manager relies on control, the leader inspires trust.

    § The manager has a short range view, the leader has a long range perspective.
    § The manager asks how and when, the leader asks what and why.
    § The manager has his eyes on the bottom line, the leader has his eyes on the horizon.
    § The manager imitates, the leader originates.
    § The manager accepts the status quo, the leader challenges it.
    § The manager is the classical good soldier, the leader is his own person.
    § The manager does things right, the leader does the right thing.

    “Leaders are individuals who have declared independence from the expectations of others and have determined to be true to themselves in the face of a society who wants to hom*ogenize them. If you are to become the leader God intended you to be, then it is necessary to challenge the opinion of others and defy the social straight-jacket that stifle the untapped leader within. True leaders do not try to be, they just are” 24 According to John Maxwell, 1998, in his book - 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership, the 21 principles are „the real-world experiences‟ of the author as well as those used as models. Zig Ziglar wrote in the foreword of the book “The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership is a powerful, definitive statement of the timeless laws you simply must follow if you want to be a great leader – at home, on the job, in church, or wherever you are called on to lead.”

    24 Monroe, Myles 1993

    21 IRREFUTABLE LAWS OF LEADERSHIP25 by John Maxwell

    25 Maxwell, John 1998

    1. The Law of the LID – Leadership ability determines a person’s level of effectiveness

    Brothers Dick and Maurice McDonald came as close as they could to living the American Dream – without making it. Instead a guy named Ray did it with the company they had founded. It happened because they didn‟t know the Law of the LID. That company is McDonald‟s.

    2. The Law of Influence – The true measure of leadership is influence- nothing more, nothing lessHer husband had everything: wealth, privilege, position, and a royal title. Yet instead of him, Princess Diana won over the whole world. Why? She understood the Law of Influence.

    3. The Law of Process – Leadership develops dailyTheodore Roosevelt helped create a world power, won a Nobel Peace Prize, and became president of the United States. But today you wouldn‟t even know his name if he hadn‟t known the Law of Process.

    4. The Law of Navigation – Anyone can steer the ship, But it takes a leader to chart the courseUsing a fail-safe compass, Scott lead his team of adventurers to the end of the earth=and to inglorious deaths. They would have lived if only he, their leader had known the Law of Navigation.

    5. The Law of E.F. Hutton – When the real leader speaks, people listenYoung John went into his first board meeting thinking he was in charge. He soon found out who the real leader was and learned the Law of E. F. Hutton.

    6. The Law of Solid Ground – Trust is the foundation of leadershipIf only Robert McNamara had known the Law of Solid Ground, the War in Vietnam-and everything that happened at home because of it-might have turned out differently.

    7. The Law of Respect – People naturally follow leaders stronger than themselvesThe odds were stacked against her in just about every possible way, but thousands and thousands of people called her their leader. Why? Because they could not escape the power of the Law of respect. Who is she? She is Harriet Tubman.

    8. The Law of Intuition – Leaders Evaluate Everything with a leadership BiasHow is it that time after time Norman Schwarzkopf was able to sense problems while other leaders around him got blindsided? The answer lies in the facto that separates the great leaders from the merely good ones: the Law of Intuition.

    9. The Law of Magnetism – Who you are is who you attractWhy are the Dallas Cowboys, once revered as “America‟s Team,” now so often reviled and the subject of controversy? The Law of Magnetism makes it clear.

    10. The Law of Connection – Leaders touch a heart before they ask for a hand

    11. The Law of the Inner Circle – A leader’s potential is determined by those closet to himJohn already used time management to the fullest, but he wanted to accomplish more. His priorities were already leveraged to the hilt, and there were no more minutes in a day! How did he go to a new level? He practiced the Law of the Inner Circle.

    12. The Law of Empowerment – Only secure leaders give power to othersHenry Ford is considered an icon of American business for revolutionizing the automobile industry. So what caused him to stumble so badly that his son feared Ford Motor Company would go out of business? He was held captive by the Law of Empowerment.

    13. The Law of Reproduction – It takes a leader to raise up a leaderWhat do the top NFL head coaches have in common? You can trace their leadership ability to just a handful of mentors. That‟s also true for hundred of CEO‟s. More than 80 percent of all leaders are the result of the Law of Reproduction.

    14. The Law of Buy-In – People buy into a leader, then the visionThe first time software entrepreneur Judy Estrim started up a company, it took six months to find the money. The second time it took her about six minutes to land 5 million in backing. What made the difference? The Law of Buy-In.

    15. The Law of Victory – Leaders find a way for the team to winWhat saved England from the Blitz, broke apartheid‟s back in South Africa, and won the Chicago Bulls multiple would championships? In all three cases the answer is the same. Their leaders lived by the Law of Victory.

    16. The Law of the Big Mo – Momentum is a leaders best friendJaime Escalante has been called the best teacher in America. But his teaching ability is only half the story. His and Garfield High School‟s success came because of the Law of the Big Mo.

    17. The Law of Priorities – Leaders understand that activity is not necessarily accomplishments IJack Welch took a company that was already flying high and rocketed it into the stratosphere. What did he use as the launching pad? The Law of Priorities of course.

    18. The Law of Sacrifice – A leader must give up to go upHe was one the nation‟s most vocal critics on government interference in business. So why did Lee Iacocca go before Congress with his hat in his hand for loan guarantees? He did it because he understood the Law of Sacrifice.

    19. The Law of Timing – When to lead is as important as what to do and where to goIt got him elected president of the United States. It also cost him the presidency. What is it? Something that may stand between you and your ability to lead effectively. It‟s called the Law of Timing. Who is he? He is former president Jimmy Carter.

    20. The Law of Explosive Growth - To add growth, lead followers – To multiply, lead leadersHow did a man in a developing country take his organization from 700 people to more than 14,000 in only seven years? He did it using leader‟s math. That‟s the secret of the Law of Explosive Growth.

    21. The Law of Legacy – A leader’s lasting value is measured by successionWhen companies lose their CEO, they go into a tailspin. But when Roberto Goizuetta died, Coca-Cola didn‟t even hiccup. Why? Before his death, Goizuetta lived by the Law of Legacy.The laws of leadership outlined on the preceding pages are actually the table of contents from Mr. Maxwell‟s book. This is a tremendous resource for anyoneinterested in leadership. So much has been gained and gleaned from reading The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership and there are many, many more examples to support all of the laws.

    GENERAL RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

    Leadership is the reason that organizations fail or succeed and in this day and time when change comes so quickly, leaders must live-in and embrace „real time‟, up to the minute leadership abilities. Mediocre leaders can become good leaders and good leaders came become great leaders.

    Mr. Maxwell has spent some thirty years teaching and training leadership skills across the nation and around the world. One of the last thoughts he left in his book was “everything rises and falls on leadership.” His recommendations are as follows:

    § .Personnel determines the potential of the organization.
    § Relationships determine the morale of the organization.
    § Structure determines the size of the organization.
    § Vision determines the direction of the organization.
    § Leadership determines the success of the organization. .

    He then goes on to wish his readers success. “To pursue your dreams. Desire excellence. Become the person you were created to be. And accomplish all that you were put on this earth to do. “

    You have the opportunity to experience success and have the best of both the business and non-profit worlds. The current and emerging trend towards entrepreneurship in the non profit sector exists in „real time‟. Just as the navigational technology – GPS brings location, time, distance, destinations etc., to us with up-to-the minute exactness; we likewise should strive to excel and deliver services to our consumers with up-to-themoment exactness. That is „real time‟ direct service delivery.

    Staying on the cutting edge in the field of social services. Pray for the spirit of excellence to fall upon you and rise within you. The Holy Bible says in Proverbs 16:22, “Understanding is a wellspring of life unto him that hath it: but the instruction of fools is folly”. Remember that the mark of a great leader is often measured by the lives that he or she has touched and inspired to greatness. Lead with integrity and people will follow. Develop leaders within your organizations and turn this world upside down! Leaders who develop followers Leaders who develop leaders Need to be needed Want to be succeeded Focus on weaknesses Focus on strengths Develop the bottom 20 percent Develop the top 20 percent Treat their people the same for „fairness‟ Treat their leaders as individuals for impact Hoard Power Give power away Spend time with others Invest time in others Grow by addition Grow by multiplication Impact only people they touch personally Impact people far beyond their own reach

    REFERENCES

    Alexander, Chauncey A. ACSW, LCSW, CAE. Distinctive Dates in Social Welfare History. President Alexander Associates. Huntington Beach, CA. 92646. http://home.insight.rr.com/schwertfa*ger/Documents/Distinctive

    Alliance For Children & Families www.alliance1.org

    Answers.com. Copyright 2007. All rights reserved.

    Beer, Max. (1925). Social Struggles in Antiquity. New York: International Publishers.

    Beer, Max. (1929). Social Struggles in the Middle Ages. New York: International Publishers.

    Beier, A.L. “Vagrants and the Social Order in Elizabethan England,” Past and Present 64. (August 1974): 3-29.

    Covey, Franklin. © 2006-2007 • © FranklinCovey Coaching • All rights reserved.

    Gibran, Kahlil. (1923). The Prophet. Renewed in 1951 by Administrators C.T.A. of Kahlil Gibran estate and Mary G. Gibran.

    Goleman, Daniel. (2000). Leadership That Gets Results. Harvard Business Review. March-April 2000.

    Lifescript.com. Copyright 1998-2007.

    Maxwell, John C. (1998). The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow them and people will follow you. Thomas Nelson, Inc. Pub. Nashville, Tenn.

    © 2001-2007 MLB Advanced Media, L.P. All rights reserved. The Official site of the New York Yankees: Team: Managers and Coaches.

    Money-Zine.com. Copyright 2004.

    Money-Zine.com. Copyright 2005-2007.

    Monroe, Myles. (1993). Becoming a Leader: Everyone can do it. Pneuma Life Publishers. Bakersfield, CA.

    The Amplified Bible. 1987. The Zondervan Corporation and the Lockman Foundation. Pub. Zondervan Publishing House. USA.

    The Thompson Chain-Reference Bible – King James Version 5th Improved Edition 1988. Compiled by Frank Charles Thompson, D.D., Ed.D. and B.B. Kirkbride Bible Co., Inc. Indianapolis, Indiana

    Trattner, Walter I. (1994). From Poor Law to Welfare State: A history of Social Welfare in America. 5th Edition. The Free Press. Division of Macmillan, Inc. New York, N.Y.

    What Welfare Reform Did For Me. Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved Wisconsin Public Television. www.wpt.org/welfare/timeline

    Whitley, Peggy and McDonald, Ruth (1999). Updated 2005, Whitley, Peggy. Social History Timeline for Mystery Readers. www.appskc.nhmccd.edu

    APPENDIX

    A. Human Services Timeline

    1675 – Massachusetts’ legislature provides relief for frontier settlers, which departs from the principle of exclusive local responsibility for relief.

    1729 – The first orphan home in the United States is established at Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, LA.

    1733 – Benjamin Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard’s Almanac ʺwith no other View than that of the public Good.

    1751 – The first hospital in the US, the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, is founded by Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Thomas Bond.

    1791 – The Bill of Rights is ratified. The first amendment guarantees the right to assemble peacefully, thus legitimizing the organization of the earliest voluntary and charitable groups.

    1798 – Congress passes an act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen and creates a federal network of hospitals for the care of merchant seamen, in effect establishing the forerunner of today’s U.S. Public Health Service.

    1845 – The Society of St. Vincent de Paul in America is established; it is a charitable organization of Roman Catholic laymen.

    1851 – The first Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA), a community service organization formed for “The improvement of the spiritual, mental, social and physical condition of young men,ʺ is established in the US at Boston, MA.

    1853 – Anthony Bowen, a freed slave, founds the first YMCA for African Americans in Washington, D.C. The black YMCAs become essential organizations in urban environments because many YMCAs would not integrate until mandated to do so by the national governing body in the 1960s. – Charles Loring Brace launches the Children’s Aid Society in New York City, of which the now infamous Orphan Train Movement was just one aspect.

    1858 – The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) movement reaches the US from London, but does not formally incorporate into a national organization. Instead, local YWCAs offer a variety of services depending on their constituencies.

    1862 – Freedmen’s aid societies are established to provide aid to former slaves. Three years later the Freedmen’s Bureau forms to focus on relief and education in the South; it lasts only until the early 1870s.

    1879 – Lieutenant Eliza Shirley holds the first meeting of the US division of The Salvation Army, an evangelical Christian missionary organization, in Philadelphia, PA.

    1881 – At age 60 Clara Barton founds the American Red Cross in Washington, D.C. The organization is modeled after the International Red Cross and Red Crescent movement begun in Geneva, Switzerland, in October 1863.

    1887 – In Denver, religious leaders found a Charity Organizations Society, the first ʺUnited Wayʺ organization, which plans and coordinates local services and conducted a single fund‐raising campaign for 22 agencies.

    1882 – Josephine Shaw Lowell is instrumental in creating the Charity Organization Society of New York, the “flagship” of the charity organization movement. However, the very first Charity Organization Society had been created in Buffalo in 1877.

    1889 – Jane Addams and Ellen Starr move in to Hull House on Chicago’s largely immigrant Westside on September 18, initiating the most famous of the settlement house movements in the US.

    1896 – Ballington and Maud Booth organize the Volunteers of America. – In Auburn, NY, Harriet Tubman acquires 25 acres of land upon which she builds a house for taking care of orphans and elderly African Americans, later to be known at the Harriet Tubman home for Indigent Aged Negroes.

    1902 – Goodwill, an organization devoted to providing services and employment for the disabled so that they can become fully functioning members of society, is founded by Methodist minister Edgar J. Helms, in Boston’s South End. The term “Goodwill Industries” is later coined in Brooklyn, NY, and adopted nationwide.

    1906 – Two YWCA groups in the US merge to form the Young Women’s Christian Association, which boasts a national membership of over 186,000. Both organizations had been fully racially integrated since their inception in 1858.

    1910 – The community‐based Urban League movement, designed to empower African Americans to achieve economic and educational parity along with civil rights, is founded in New York City.

    1912 –President William Howard Taft signs into law the creation of the federal Children’s Bureau in order to combat the exploitation of children. The Bureau’s first chief is reformer Julia C. Lathrop.

    1916 – Margaret Sanger, her sister, Ethel Byrne, and Fania Mindell open the first American birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York. Because they provide information on birth control to the public, all three are shortly thereafter prosecuted and found guilty of violating the Comstock Law, which defined such information as obscene. Not until 1936 will a judge rule that material on birth control is no longer obscene.

    1918 – Executives of 12 fund‐raising federations meet in Chicago and form the American Association for Community Organizations (AACO), the predecessor to United Way of America.

    1933 – President Franklin Delano Roosevelt successfully passes legislation through a special session of Congress that will come to be known as the ʺNew Deal.ʺ For the first time in US history, the executive and legislative branches begin to address the issue of national, government‐run social services.

    1935 – Social Security Act passes in Congress; this marks beginning of a permanent welfare program by the national government, in part caused by the failure of the private voluntary sector to meet the social needs of the population. – Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) established by the Social Security Act to supply states with cash grants for welfare support of single‐parent or parentless children in need.

    1952 – In Bombay, Margaret Sanger serves as a founder as well as the first president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, which organizes eight countries’ family planning associations into an international advocacy body.

    1953 – Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) created by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on April 11.

    1965 – Congress passes a bill creating Medicare and Medicaid in order to bring healthcare to millions of Americans previously without access. – Project Head Start launched by the Office of Economic Opportunity to meet the needs of underprivileged preschool‐age children.

    1974 – United Ways raised $1,038,995,000 in America and Canada ‐ the first time in history that an annual campaign of a single organization raised more than $1 billion. In order to accomplish their goal, United Ways and the National Football League (NFL) undertook the largest public‐service campaign in the nation’s history; a major part of that campaign was Great Moments, the televised United Way/NFL public‐service announcements. – United Way International formed to help nations around the world create organizations modeled after the United Way in North America.

    1980 – HEW becomes Department of Health and Human Services on May 4 after the Department of Education Organization Act takes effect. 1996 – The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) replaces AFDC, the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Training (JOBS) program and the Emergency Assistance (EA) program with a cash welfare block grant program named Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), placing a 5‐year lifetime limit on the amount of aid a family with one adult can receive, among other new stipulations for program participation.

    2001 – Terrorist attacks at the World Trade Centers in New York City on September 11 result in an unprecedented outpouring of monetary support to the Red Cross and other social service organizations.

    2004 – Joan B. Kroc bequests $1.5 billion to the Salvation Army, the largest gift ever given to a charitable nonprofit organization, for the purpose of building a series of community centers and for investment in an endowment to maintain the centers.

    Leadership for the Non Profit Sector  
	

Jacqueline M. Pinckney (2024)
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