April 2013 - PDFCOFFEE.COM (2024)


R E G U L A R F E AT U R E S Previews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii Staff Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv House of Delegates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Geoscience Meetings Calendar . . . . 638

GEOHORIZON Summary of the AAPG–SPE–SEG Hedberg Research Conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” Susan Agar, Sebastian Geiger, Philippe Léonide, Juliette Lamarche, Giovanni Bertotti, Olivier Gosselin, Gary Hampson, Matt Jackson, Gareth Jones, Jeroen Kenter, Stephan Matthäi, Joyce Neilson, Laura Pyrak-Nolte, and Fiona Whitaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



.......... Diagenesis and quartz cement distribution of low-permeability Upper Triassic–Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones, Longyearbyen CO2 lab well site in Svalbard, Norway Mai Britt E. Mørk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring and modeling fault density for CO2 storage plume-fault encounter probability estimation


Preston D. Jordan, Curtis M. Oldenburg, and Jean-Philippe Nicot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Memorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 Book Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 Association Roundtable . . . . . . . . . . 675 Education Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . (vii) Affiliated Societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . (viii)

ON COVER — Aerial photograph of the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River, Canada with a digital elevation model (DEM) partly draped over the bottom and left areas of the image (blue represents deeper parts of the braidplain and red higher parts of the reach). The image was taken near Outlook, the studied reach described in the classic paper by Cant and Walker (1978). The photograph and DEM show superb resolution of lobate fronted unit bars and larger compound bars as well as a variety of dune bedforms. Flow in the image is bottom to top, although note the wide range of dune crest orientations. See related paper on by Lunt et al. on p. 553 of this issue of the Bulletin.

Deposits of the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River: Implications for the use of modern analogs in reconstructing channel dimensions in reservoir characterization Ian A. Lunt, Gregory H. Sambrook Smith, James L. Best, Philip J. Ashworth, Stuart N. Lane, and Christopher J. Simpson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Insight into petrophysical properties of deformed sandstone reservoirs Anita Torabi, Haakon Fossen, and Alvar Braathen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evidence for overpressure generation by kerogen-to-gas maturation in the northern Malay Basin Mark R. P. Tingay, Chris K. Morley, Andrew Laird, Orapan Limp*rnpipat, Kanjana Krisadasima, Suwit Pabchanda, and Hamish R. Macintyre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS— AAPG thanks ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company; University of Birmingham; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; and the AAPG Foundation for financial support of this issue of the Bulletin. Printed in the U.S.A.





PREVIEWS Carbonate reservoirs

The Hedberg Research Conference on Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates was held in Saint-Cyr sur Mer, France, July 2012, to review current research and explore future research directions related to improved production from carbonate reservoirs. A primary objective was to explore novel connections among different disciplines as a way to define new research opportunities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533

Estimating the scale of paleorivers

This study analyzed the morphology, geometry, and deposits of bedforms and channels in the South Saskatchewan, a sandy braided river. Results add to the relatively small pool of data from modern rivers and aid in constraining the limits of dimensions of different lithofacies used in reservoir models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .553

Potential for CO2 storage?

This study focuses on a CO2 storage pilot project in Upper TriassicMiddle Jurassic sandstones, Spitsbergen. Sandstone porosity occurs mainly in isolated molds and micropores while the most promising zones for CO2 injection may occur in beds with enhanced dissolution porosity. . . . . . . . . . . .577

Leakage via faults

Storage of CO2 in brine-filled reservoirs is a possible means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for gas leakage through faults is a significant concern and is evaluated through a case study in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin, California. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597

Estimating capillary pressures

Permeability and porosity measurements from in-situ, core-plug, and thin section can be used to estimate capillary pressures and sealing capacities of different fault-related rocks without requiring direct laboratory measurements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619

Basin-wide gas generation overpressuring

Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin is the result of fluid expansion, most likely from gas generation through kerogen catagenesis or oil cracking. This study represents some of the best supporting evidence to date for significant basin-wide overpressures caused by gas generation. . . . . . . . . . . . .639


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SENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITORS Richard Groshong, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama Barry Katz, Chevron Corporation, Houston, TX Colin P. North, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland Terrilyn Olson, EOG Resources, Denver, CO Michael L. Sweet, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co., Houston, TX


Michael L. Sweet, ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Arthur E. Berman (2013), Sugar Land, Texas, Gulf Coast Section William R. Brown (2013), College Station, Texas, Gulf Coast Section Stuart D. Harker (2013), Aberdeen, Scotland, European Region Marcio R. Mello (2013), Rio de Janiero, Brazil, Latin America Region John Minch (2013), Santa Barbara, California, Pacific Section David G. Morse (2013), Champaign, IL, Eastern Section David R. Pyles (2013), Golden, CO, Rocky Mountain Section Tim L. Rynott (2013), Denver, Colorado, Rocky Mountain Section William C. Stephens Jr. (2013), Wichita Falls, Texas, Southwest Section


Bret J. Fossum, ConocoPhillips, Houston,TX


F. E. (Rick) Abegg, Chevron, Moon Township, PA Patricia F. Allwardt, ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX Roslinda A. Archer, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Peter Baillie, GeoData Ventures, Singapore Janok P. Bhattacharya, University of Houston, Houston, TX Timothy N. Diggs, Shell International E&P, Houston, TX Barrett T. (Bret) Dixon, Anadarko Petroleum Corp., The Woodlands, TX Fang Hao, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China Nicholas B. Harris, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Brian W. Horn, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Durham, NC Alain-Yves Huc, Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, Cedex, France G. Wyn Hughes, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Joseph J. Lambiase, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Christopher K. Morley, PTTEP, Bangkok, Thailand Prasanta (Muki) Mukhopadhyay, Global Geoenergy Res. Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada Terrilyn Olson, EOG Resources, Denver, CO Jory Pacht, Altair Enterprises LLC, Houston, TX Bradford E. Prather, Shell Upstream Americas, Houston, TX Sandro Serra, Serra GeoConsulting LLC, Houston, TX

2013– 2014

Mohammed S. Ameen, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Joachim E. Amthor, Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Marc Aurell, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain David N. Awwiller, ExxonMobil, Houston, TX Linda M. Bonnell, Geocosm, LLC, Austin, TX Kent A. Bowker, Bowker Petroleum, LLC, The Woodlands, TX Stephen P. Cumella, Bill Barrett Corp., Denver, CO David E. Eby, EBY Petrography & Consulting, Inc., Denver, CO Peter Eichhubl, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Mark P. Fischer, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL Peter Hennings, ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX William A. Hill, BP, Houston, TX Christopher A. Jackson, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom Alexander A. Kitchka, Centre for Aerospace Research of the Earth at Institute of Geological Sciences (CASRE), Kiev, Ukraine Dale A. Leckie, Nexen Inc., Alberta, Canada Steven Losh, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN Richard J. Moiola, Sandstone Enterprises, Dallas, TX Joyce E. Neilson, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland Jon E. Olson, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Jack C. Pashin, Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Kenneth E. Peters, Schlumberger and Stanford University, Mill Valley, CA Dave A. Pivnik, Apache Energy, Perth, Australia Matthew J. Pranter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO Stephen Ruppel, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX Mihaela S. Ryer, ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX Carl K. Steffensen, BP America Inc., Houston, TX Gabor Tari, OMV Exploration, Vienna, Austria Peter D. Warwick, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA Howard J. White, Anadarko Petroleum, The Woodlands, TX

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The American Association of Petroleum Geologists EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2012–2013 President: EDWARD A. BEAUMONT Sections Vice President: THOMAS E. EWING Regions Vice President: STUART D. HARKER President-Elect: LEE KRYSTINIK Secretary: DENISE M. COX Treasurer: DEBORAH K. SACREY Editor: STEPHEN E. LAUBACH Chair, House of Delegates: RANDY RAY


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International Councillors



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Advisory Board Members Chair, MICHAEL HAGAN Eastern Section, TIM MURIN Gulf Coast Section, KEVIN S. HOPSON Mid-Continent Section, CHARLES STEINCAMP Rocky Mountain Section, TBA Southwest Section, MICHAEL A. JACOBS Pacific Section, TBA Asia-Pacific Region Coordinator, JEFF ALDRICH Canada Region, JESSE SCHOENGUT European Regions Coordinator, TBA


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EL PASO J. M. Levy


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Summary of the AAPG–SPE–SEG Hedberg Research Conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” Susan Agar, Sebastian Geiger, Philippe Léonide, Juliette Lamarche, Giovanni Bertotti, Olivier Gosselin, Gary Hampson, Matt Jackson, Gareth Jones, Jeroen Kenter, Stephan Matthäi, Joyce Neilson, Laura Pyrak-Nolte, and Fiona Whitaker

A joint AAPG–Society of Petroleum Engineers–Society of Exploration Geophysicists Hedberg Research Conference was held in Saint-Cyr sur Mer, France, on July 8 to 13, 2012, to review current research and explore future research directions related to improved production from carbonate reservoirs. Eighty-seven scientists from academia and industry (split roughly equally) attended for five days. A primary objective for the conference was to explore novel connections among different disciplines (primarily within geoscience and reservoir engineering) as a way to define new research opportunities. Research areas represented included carbonate sedimentology and stratigraphy, structural geology, geomechanics, hydrology, reactive transport modeling, seismic imaging (including four-dimensional seismic, tomography, and seismic forward modeling), geologic modeling and forward modeling of geologic processes, petrophysics, statistical methods, numerical methods for simulation, reservoir engineering, pore-scale processes, in-situ flow experiments (e.g., x-ray computed tomography), visualization, and methods for data interaction.

Copyright ©2013. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved. Manuscript received September 6, 2012; revised manuscript received January 14, 2013; final acceptance December 17, 2012. DOI:10.1306/12171212229

AAPG Bulletin, v. 97, no. 4 (April 2013), pp. 533–552


Susan Agar ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas; [emailprotected] Susan Agar is an advisor for emerging and disruptive technologies at ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company. She directed the ExxonMobil-Academic (FC)2 Alliance for five years before this Hedberg Conference on the same research theme. She obtained her Ph.D. from Imperial College and has divided her research and development career equally between academic positions and industry. Her research interests include structural geology, geomechanics, and flow prediction in fractured reservoirs. She also pursues interests in academic-industrygovernment collaboration. Sebastian Geiger Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Sebastian Geiger is the foundation CMG chair for carbonate reservoir simulation at the Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, where he leads the carbonate research group. He is also the codirector of the International Centre for Carbonate Reservoirs in Edinburgh, a joint research alliance between Heriot-Watt University and University of Edinburgh. His current research interests include modeling, simulating, and upscaling multiphase flow processes in (fractured) carbonate reservoirs, enhanced oil recovery processes for carbonate reservoirs, and studying the fundamental transport processes in carbonates from a pore-scale perspective. Sebastian received a Ph.D. from ETH Zurich and an M.Sc. degree from Oregon State University. Philippe Léonide Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France; [emailprotected] Philippe Léonide is an assistant professor in carbonate sedimentology at the Aix-Marseille University (Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Enseignement des Géosciences de l’Environnement [CEREGE], National Center for Scientific Research [CNRS], Institut de Recherche pour le Développement [IRD], Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Enseignement des Géosciences de l’Environnement [CEREGE] UM34, France). He received his Ph.D. in sedimentology from University of Provence in 2007. He was a postdoctoral researcher on stratigraphical architecture in carbonates at Total/University of Provence from 2008 to 2009. He moved to the sedimentology and marine geology group of John Reijmer at the VU Amsterdam University in February 2009. His present-day research focuses on evolution of carbonates through time, which have importance for the characterization of petrophysical properties in the carbonate systems and reservoirs.

Juliette Lamarche Université Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France; [emailprotected]


Juliette Lamarche is an assistant professor in structural geology at the Aix-Marseille University (CEREGE, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, France). She received her Ph.D. in structural geology from Paris VI University in 1999. In 1999 to 2000, she taught structural geology at the Lille 1 University (France). She then did postdoctoral research on three-dimensional basin modeling at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam (Germany) from 2000 to 2003. Her present-day research focuses on fractured reservoir analog in carbonates and three-dimensional structural basin modeling.

The conference was organized into four thematic sessions on the first two days (fundamentals, measurement and detection of flow on laboratory to field scales, uncertainty and prediction, and novel modeling and simulation techniques); a field trip on the third day was preceded by a dedicated poster session that introduced the geology of the area, whereas the ice breaker featured guest lectures on innovation and complex adaptive leadership, as well as a panel discussion. Given the challenge of cross-disciplinary communication, delegates were encouraged to adopt a beginner’s mind, challenging the status quo and exploring basic questions that the establishment might have overlooked. Stepping back and slowing down to promote effective conversations among different disciplines was emphasized upfront. Several delegates noted that technical jargon was a significant barrier to novel thinking in the way that it impeded effective communication among disciplines during the meeting. Cross-disciplinary interactions were encouraged by several further mechanisms, representing a shift from more common Hedberg Conference formats. Overall, the conference started with substantial guidance to promote engagement. As the week progressed, the conference format became less structured as delegates learned more about each other and pursued the development of research ideas. For a group of free-thinking research scientists, early deliberate orchestration of interactions was an unusual experience. The objective, however, was to ensure that delegates did not fall back on established connections, to promote new connections and to engage all delegates (particularly non-native English speakers). Some of the techniques used resemble methods used in Open Space Technology to promote self-organization in a framework of simple guidelines (Owen, 2012). Nick Obolensky (Vth Dimension) and Julian Birkinshaw (London Business School) helped to kick off the meeting with introductions related to innovation. Birkinshaw discussed “Where Ideas Come From,” while Obolensky led sessions related to “Complex Adaptive Leadership” and “Self-Organization.” Delegate feedback commented on the value of these nonscientific contributions, recommending that similar efforts might be worthwhile for future conferences. The techniques encouraged delegates not only to think about the science and technology but also to consider how situations and interactions were impacting their ability to connect and innovate. Several of the approaches had been tested previously through the ExxonMobil-Academic (FC)2 Alliance (Agar, 2009), but this Hedberg Conference provided an opportunity to evaluate these methods in a large group of academic and

Giovanni Bertotti Delft University of Technology and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; [emailprotected] Giovanni Bertotti received his M.Sc. degree in field geology at the University of Pisa (Italy). He then obtained a Ph.D. from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology developing a project on the tectonics of the South Alpine passive continental margin. From 1991 to 2010, he has been working at VU Amsterdam on the tectonics of basins in Carpathians, Turkey, Morocco, and elsewhere. Since 2010, he also holds the position of a full professor in applied geology at the Delft University of Technology where he is working on the geology of fractured reservoirs. Olivier Gosselin Total/Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Olivier Gosselin has been a principal reservoir engineer, with Elf and Total for more than 30 years. He is now a full-time visiting professor of petroleum engineering at Imperial College London. His research interest and expertise concerns mathematical and numerical methods applied to characterization, modeling, and flow simulation of reservoirs, especially carbonates and fractured reservoirs, and also identification of problems and assisted history-matching using four-dimensional seismic data. Gary Hampson Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Gary Hampson is a reader in sedimentary geology in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London. He holds a B.A. degree in natural sciences from the University of Cambridge and a Ph.D. in sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy from the University of Liverpool. His research interests lie in the understanding of depositional systems and their preserved stratigraphy, and in applying this knowledge to reservoir characterization.



industry researchers, many of them meeting for the first time. A panel discussion, led by Professor Martin Blunt (Imperial College London), Donatella Astratti (Schlumberger), and Brodie Thompson (ExxonMobil) then emphasized why innovation is needed for carbonate reservoirs and what keeps the scientific community from achieving it. From the start of the week, delegates were asked to consider new research opportunities in the form of proposals for collaborative multidisciplinary research involving academic and industry representatives. A strong emphasis was placed on the development of bold new ideas regardless of budget and present-day technical feasibility. The motto for the week was “Build your spaceship to Mars!,” encouraging delegates to think beyond incremental developments on their current line of research and to explore new and unfamiliar areas. During the first three days of the conference, delegates could propose a potential “venture group” by posting an idea or research direction and inviting others to sign up. Essentially, the conference provided a market place to sell and buy into ideas with a view to consolidating a limited number of teams later in the week to discuss forefront research proposals (Figure 1). Although many high-quality and informative presentations and posters were presented, the emphasis was very much on the future. To support the development of venture groups, 13 keynote presentations were delivered over the first 2 days to introduce provocative thinking, novel research, and case studies related to each of the four half-day themes. The presentations were followed by poster sessions (∼15–20 posters per session). Nearly all delegates who were not giving keynote presentations contributed a poster, creating a rich library of ongoing research primarily related to geoscience, flow prediction, and production in carbonate reservoirs. Abstracts for the talks are now available on AAPG Search and Discovery and were distributed electronically to the delegates. In addition, many delegates volunteered to make their talks and posters available in electronic format after the conference via a secure Web site at Heriot-Watt University. Posters (Figure 2) provided a starting point to identify connections and future research opportunities. Speed dates were used at the start of each poster session as a means to identify connections. These 8-min exchanges required the poster presenter to deliver key research messages, needs, future directions, and opportunities. Some delegates noted that posters commonly have more writing on them than can be easily absorbed and that the focus on a few key points helped to drill quickly into what really mattered. After 4 min, the audience (that had selforganized around the posters in each session) was asked to provide feedback on common interests and connections that they

Matt Jackson Imperial College, London, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Matthew Jackson is total chair of geological fluid mechanics in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London. He holds a B.S. degree in physics from Imperial College and a Ph.D. in geologic fluid mechanics from the University of Liverpool. His research interests include simulation of multiphase flow through porous media, new techniques for reservoir characterization and modeling, and monitoring and inflow control in advanced wells. Gareth Jones ExxonMobil Exploration Company, Houston, Texas; [emailprotected] Gareth Jones is a geoscientist with ExxonMobil. His research interests include carbonate reservoir characterization and modeling with an emphasis on process-based predictions of diagenesis. He has a B.Sc. degree from the University of London (Royal Holloway), an M.Sc. degree in hydrogeology from the University of Birmingham, and a Ph.D. from the University of Bristol. Jeroen Kenter Statoil, Bergen, Norway; [emailprotected] Jeroen Kenter is a member of the Carbonate Producibility Group at Statoil Company in Bergen, Norway. He received his Ph.D. from Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. He worked as a postdoctoral researcher at Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) in Miami, returned as a junior researcher to Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, joined the Chevron Energy Technology Company in 2005, and moved to Statoil in 2011. His research includes carbonate reservoir characterization and, in particular, rock typing and upscaling workflows, and the development of new geomodeling techniques and fast-track reservoir modeling and simulation. Stephan Matthäi Montan Universität Leoben, Leoben, Austria; [emailprotected] Stephan Matthäi is chair of reservoir engineering at the Montan University of Leoben, Austria, and a consultant to the oil and gas industry. His previous academic appointment was as a senior lecturer of computational hydrodynamics at Imperial College London, United Kingdom. He holds an M.Sc. degree from Tübingen University, Germany, and a Ph.D. from the Research School of Earth Sciences at the Australian National University. Furthermore, he has conducted postdoctoral research at Cornell University and Stanford University in the United States, as well as the Swiss ETH Zürich. His publications range from the formation of hydrothermal gold deposits to the upscaling of multiphase flow in naturally fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Agar et al.


Joyce Neilson University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Joyce Neilson is currently a lecturer in carbonates and petroleum geology at the University of Aberdeen. Since receiving her Ph.D. from Imperial College in 1988, she has also worked for BP and as a consultant. Her research interests include the effects of diagenesis and faulting and fracturing on reservoir quality in carbonates. Laura Pyrak-Nolte Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana; [emailprotected] Laura Pyrak-Nolte is a professor in physics at Purdue University with courtesy appointments in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and the School of Civil Engineering. She received her B.S. degree in engineering science from State University of New York at Buffalo, M.S. degree in geophysics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and Ph.D. in material sciences and mineral engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include applied geophysics, experimental and theoretical seismic wave propagation, rock mechanics, microfluidics, particle swarms, and fluid flow through earth materials. Fiona Whitaker University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Fiona Whitaker is a senior lecturer in earth sciences at Bristol University. Her research focuses on waterrock interactions in carbonate, evaporite, and volcanic systems, integrating field studies of modern environments with reactive-transport modeling. She has a B.Sc. degree in physical geography from the University of Bristol and a Ph.D. on the hydrochemistry of modern Bahamian carbonate platforms.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The conveners thank AAPG, the Society of Petroleum Engineers, and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists for their support of this Hedberg Conference. The following companies generously sponsored the conference: BG Group, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil, Maersk Oil, Petrobras, Saudi Aramco, Shell, Statoil, and Total. We thank the Geosciences Research Program Office of Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG0212ER16287 for a generous award to support travel for students, postdoctoral students, and early career faculty. We also thank Laura Wegener (ExxonMobil) for her substantial contributions to field safety, conference preparation, and networking data compilation. We thank Debbi Boonstra (AAPG) for all her efforts during the two years involved in conference preparation. Frederic Jan and the staff of the Dolce Fregate hotel provided excellent logistical support.



could identify and ways that they might help. For some, this felt a little different because their usual mode of interaction is to interrogate the science as opposed to identifying opportunities. The fundamental science was still important, but delegates were being asked to think on their feet about potential mutual gains. In the open format poster session that followed, delegates were asked to identify three to five posters that could offer opportunities for research collaboration on a common theme. A simple numbering system enabled the rapid acquisition of data and mapping of networks (Figure 1). Delegates agreed to share information on connections to posters, although it was recognized that large differentials in the apparent popularity reflected might exist. It was emphasized that network maps of connections did not represent any evaluation of the scientific or technical merit of a given poster. First, delegates might not even recognize the opportunities associated with cutting-edge research. Second, to a large extent, connections tend to reflect the interests of delegates instead of the opportunities for commercialization. Some biases also arose from the position of posters in the meeting room and timing of sessions. Recognizing that the process was far from perfect, the network maps still offered some early insights to potential hubs for venture groups. Several poster presenters also commented that the networking process helped to identify novel connections that they had not previously considered. Following a spectacular introductory boat trip along the coast between La Ciotat and Cassis on the first day of the conference, a mid-week field trip provided the transition from orchestrated presentations and poster sessions to more informal interactions. Led by the faculty and students at the Université Aix-Marseille, the trip focused on Cretaceous carbonate outcrops near Orgon and Cassis. The diverse group of delegates was introduced to analogs for Middle East carbonate reservoirs, examples of fault zones in carbonates, facies in various ramp settings, outcrop fracture studies, and multi-kilometer–scale overviews of carbonate sequences. The fourth morning of the conference provided additional time for delegates to review the venture group proposals and to consolidate into 12 or less groups. Starting with more than 20 proposals, self-organized mergers and acquisitions condensed fairly quickly down to just five venture groups (see below). Breakout discussions with interim report outs were used to shape research proposals by each venture group for the next day with final presentations delivered on the last morning (Figure 1). The following section summarizes key points from each of the sessions including all keynote oral presentations and posters. To avoid unnecessary repetition, some posters are discussed in a different session from the one in which they were presented.

• Insights to first-order processes and their relation to original mineralogy and stratigraphy may offer ways to simplify porosity and permeability prediction. • Knowledge creation related to the processes controlling stylolite formation and fracture aperture development is opening up paths to improved prediction and representation in flow models. • Many alternatives available for flow and mechanical modeling tools that can offer improvements on the current state of industry technology exist. A state-of-the-art summary would benefit many researchers (see also Session 4 below). Methods to Predict and Control Wettability Figure 1. Example network of individual delegates (black dots) and their connections to posters in all four poster sessions for the first two days. The posters common to a given poster session are represented by dots with a common color (i.e., red, green, blue, or orange). The size of the circles represents the in-degree, that is, the number of delegates who identified a connection to a given poster. These displays were used to provide early indications of research interests and potential links that could underpin venture groups. Data presentation by Laura Wegener.

EMERGING THEMES RELATED TO FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES Joyce Neilson (University of Aberdeen) and Olivier Gosselin (Total/Imperial College) led the first session on “fundamentals.” Key messages included the following: • Future research needs to emphasize the fundamental physics and chemistry controlling fluid movements in carbonate rocks. Some of this research is currently limited by technical capabilities (e.g., imaging). • Expansion of pore-scale simulation research is stimulating further discussion related to multi– scale-modeling approaches, more rigorous approaches to upscaling, and improvements for reactive transport modeling (RTM). • The creation and destruction of porosity involve fundamental processes affecting all carbonates. Significant advances are still needed to develop reliable simulations of porosity evolution.

Discussions emphasized the need for more research on the fundamental physics and chemistry controlling fluid movements in carbonate rocks. In particular, presentations highlighted the relationship of wettability to pore structures, how wettability varies with pore surface, and how we can use this knowledge and smart water to change the wettability of pore throats to increase permeability. One approach discussed in Martin Blunt’s (Imperial College) keynote presentation introduced pore-network modeling as a means to study the impact of wettability and connectivity on waterflood relative permeability. This approach involves computing flow through binarized images, solving the Stoke’s equation for slow viscous flow, tracing streamlines through the pore space, and moving particles combined with a random displacement. Agreement between simulation results and experimental neutron magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements reinforces confidence in the method. A further experimental study of wettability, that of Kristian Mogensen and Søren Frank (Maersk), looked at different scales to constrain the impact of heterogeneities. Their results highlighted the function of surface reactivity and roughness on wettability and the potential to modify pore-throat roughness (and wettability) through carefully designed acid jobs. Surface electrical charge was proposed as another influence on the wetting behavior of carbonates by Matt Jackson (Imperial College). He discussed the use of the streaming potential coupling coefficient as a way to probe the surface electrical charge properties of carbonate samples Agar et al.


Figure 2. Speed dating at the posters.

saturated with brine and crude oil. The method also offers a way to explore whether changes in surface charge and wetting state are responsible for improved oil recovery during controlled salinity water floods. The importance of being able to visualize directly the distribution of residual phases in the rock pore space based on plug nanometer-scale studies was discussed by Mark Knackstedt (Australian National University). His multiscale imaging approach not only provides insights to recovery mechanisms but also can support the development of upscaling methods for flow properties from pore to plug to core scales. Masa Pradonovic (University of Texas at Austin) also revealed submicron porosity characteristics of carbonate rocks through her ion beam microscopy studies (see more below). An identified challenge for the wettability theme was the need for a set of recommendations or guidelines to represent relative permeabilities for (fractured) multiporosity carbonates with complex diagenetic evolution. Furthermore, current image resolution for tomography imposes limitations on pore-scale visualization and modeling. This said, the potential for pore-scale modeling approaches to advance RTM was highlighted as a promising future research area. Processes Controlling Porosity Development The creation and destruction of porosity involve fundamental processes affecting all carbonates and represent a cornerstone of carbonate geoscience research. Without appropriate constraints for mod538


eling parameters, simulations of porosity evolution remain exploratory at best. Starting with the fundamental assumptions used in numerical models, Simon Emmanuel (Hebrew University) discussed the shortcomings of empirical rate laws of dissolution for dissolution in heterogeneous carbonates. Suggested improvements have been developed based on combined atomic force microscopy and numerical modeling studies of dissolution rates and mechanisms. Linking to comments on pore-scale modeling above, these results are now being used to propose techniques to integrate pore-scale heterogeneity with reactive transport models. The large number of complex interactions involved in diagenesis were noted as a key challenge for simulations. However, a contribution by Adrian Immenhause (Ruhr University Bochum) emphasized the first-order controls of original mineralogy on dissolution (the aragonite vs. calcite seas issue). The recognition of carbonate mineralogy as one of a limited number of factors that exerts an overriding influence on diagenesis may offer a way to simplify diagenetic models. In the absence of robust simulations of porosity evolution, a tendency to fall back on common assumptions (rules of thumb and anecdotes) for porosity and permeability development also exists. Whereas some may argue that sequence boundaries tend to localize significant porosity and permeability development, Robert Goldstein (University of Kansas) presented a different view: reductions in porosity and permeability at sequence boundaries are also predictable on the basis of depositional facies and thus can improve

subsurface models. Cementation as a process that can destroy overall permeability was further highlighted by the concept of diagenetic backstripping (Rachel Wood, University of Edinburgh) as a means to identify diagenetic tipping points during the evolution of carbonate reservoirs during burial that can be linked to fluid migration histories. Discussions extended to porosity and cementation in stylolites and fractures. Einat Aharonov (Hebrew University) identified categories of stylolites; the mechanisms controlling their evolution; and their impacts on large-scale strains, spatial distributions of porosity, and potential flow. A proposed upscaling approach also offers a new way to incorporate core-scale observations of stylolites into field-scale models. The processes controlling fracture aperture development were also addressed. As a key impact on fracture flow predictions, appropriate definitions of fracture aperture populations remain elusive. In response to this challenge, novel approaches to evaluate the impacts of stress and fluid reactivity on apertures were shared by Derek Elsworth (Pennsylvania State University). His experimental results suggest that both the fluid chemistry and characteristics of the fracture surfaces influence whether the fracture aperture is likely to increase or reduce with time. The direction of flow along fractures can also impact whether their apertures decrease or increase. Gareth Jones (ExxonMobil) showed the strong impacts of thermal gradients on dissolution and cementation rates in convective flow models (variable density fluid flow coupled with thermodynamic reactions) for nonmarine carbonates. Weak gradients along strata have little impact; however in fault zones, stronger thermal gradients promote faster dissolution when flow is directed up the fault but more cementation when flow is directed down the fault. These thermal gradient effects have the potential to drive locally an order-of-magnitude difference in permeability. Whereas each of the studies above focused on a particular aspect of carbonate porosity, Rudy Swennen (KU Leuven) promoted the need to integrate and coordinate studies of various carbonate pore networks to realize gains for both academia and industry. He highlighted the ad-hoc nature of reservoir studies undertaken to meet industry needs for the short term, the small size of ac-

ademic research groups, and the lack of a full spectrum of required expertise in any given group. In his view, the coordination of a consortium of multiple research groups to develop a structured database on this theme can offer significant advances in terms of standardization of data and broader access. Simulation of Flow and Fundamental Geologic Processes In addition to direct investigations of the fundamental physical and chemical processes that impact flow and rock properties in carbonate reservoirs, the first session introduced some of the challenges related to the development of appropriate proxies and their representation at different scales in models (pore scale to full-field scale). Issues surrounding the scaling rock and fluid flow behavior, as well as multiscale modeling techniques, were raised commonly. As an example of a way to capture the fundamental physics while reducing computational cost, Masa Pradonovic (University of Texas at Austin) demonstrated a novel two-scale network model to connect flow on pore and microporosity scales. Moving to a coarser scale, Jim Jennings (Shell) sought a way to simplify. He proposed a generalized approach for permeability averaging through the use of power averaging. This approach provides flexibility to range between harmonic and arithmetic means, using exponents estimated by the Ababou conjecture and applying these, stepwise, to random permeability fields containing different anisotropies. At an even coarser scale, Cedric Griffiths (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) addressed multiscale forward stratigraphic modeling as a way to gain insights to appropriate upscaling techniques for rock properties and to predict rock properties between wells. Highlighting the numerous improvements needed to advance flow simulation for carbonate reservoirs, Olivier Gosselin’s (Total/Imperial College) keynote presentation challenged delegates to pursue improvements or alternatives to dual porosity models for fracture-flow simulations. No resistance to this proposal was voiced at the conference, and several alternatives were highlighted in subsequent talks and posters (discrete fracture-matrix modeling, lattice Agar et al.


Boltzmann, cellular automata (CA), network (ball and stick model), Langrangian, and continuous time random walk (CTRW) [see below]). Ensuing discussion of discrete fracture network (DFN) models raised questions concerning the current state of geomechanical modeling as a means to generate fracture populations, their connectivity, and the value of coupling fluid flow to geomechanics. Reinforcing the need for a review of geomechanical modeling tools, Gosselin also highlighted new approaches that are under development (e.g., incorporating fluid flow into geomechanical simulations and attempts to incorporate fracture propagation and realistic fracture aperture distributions in discrete fracture matrix [DFM] models). The problem, however, is that, while numerous geomechanical modeling efforts are being pursued, interested parties are challenged to find the time and resources to evaluate all of them, and little consensus on the most promising research avenues appears to exist. Although many people are familiar with the application of DFN simulation approaches for fractured carbonate reservoirs, the application of the CTRW method, which is well established in the groundwater community and has been used in physics since the early 1970s, was less familiar to many of the delegates. The CTRW approach has been applied in many different fields, but examples of its application to subsurface flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs are more limited. In his keynote presentation, Ruben Juanes (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) introduced the CTRW method as a novel way to look at anomalous flow and particle velocity, emphasizing flow in fractured porous media. In his example, the CTRW was being used to validate a spatial Markov model on a lattice network that explicitly captures the multidimensional effects associated with changes in direction along the particle trajectory. Potential applications of this approach include forecasting and risk assessment of the drained reservoir volume or time to breakthrough in fractured reservoirs directly from DFN models. This approach avoids the need for lengthy dynamic simulations on conventional corner point grids and the difficult task of upscaling the DFN. A wide-ranging conversation on various aspects of modeling permeated discussions throughout the conference. Comments reinforced the need to im540


prove the integration of static and dynamic data and the types of dynamic data needed to calibrate models for a given scale with a given recovery process. In addition, the relative merits of more simulations and more sophisticated simulations versus a move to simpler approaches were debated. The fact that conclusions from simulations may arise from an input that is not being tracked carefully was duly noted. Discussions also drew attention to the fact that reservoir simulation models step forward linearly in time whereas much of the inherent flow physics operates on multiple time scales, that is, it happens much faster than a single simulation time step (and hence would be represented incorrectly) or is much slower (and hence the simulator calculates that nothing happened in part of the reservoir volume). This not only makes the use of computational hardware inefficient but also simplifies the flow physics, potentially leading to erroneous results and production forecasts.

EMERGING THEMES RELATED TO MEASUREMENT AND DETECTION OF FLOW AND ROCK PROPERTIES Laura Pyrak-Nolte (Purdue University) and Matt Jackson (Imperial College) chaired a session on various approaches to measure and detect flow and rock properties from plug to play scales. Key points from this session were as follows: • Petrophysical experiments are revealing further complexities in terms of rock and fluid impacts on acoustic signatures—there is much more to do. • Petrophysical assumptions for clastic rocks do not necessarily apply in carbonates caused in part by the multiple scales of heterogeneities that exist in carbonates. Novel experiments are highlighting additional insights to controls on distinct paths for porosity and permeability development in carbonates and offer improvements for established petrophysical parameters. • An opportunity exists to pursue more subsurface experiments to validate modeling (flow and seismic) and interpretation of seismic signatures, to learn more about what happens between wells, and to measure flow properties directly.

• Linking different measurements over different scales is a major challenge for monitoring and detection of flow. Opportunities exist to develop better tools for subsurface monitoring and better tools for seamless data integration. • Various inversion methods and integration of all available data types (geophysical, geologic, and production and/or engineering data) can help to reduce uncertainties. No single approach can tell us what we need to know. • We need to remember that operations also impact flow—it is not just geology and fluids.

INSIGHTS FROM NOVEL PETROPHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS The overlap in length scales of discrete elements in carbonate rocks together with changes induced by factors such as stress, fluid content, and reactive fluid flow make it particularly challenging to interpret the geophysical signatures of flow behavior and to tie petroacoustic responses to rock properties. In her keynote presentation, Laura Pyrak-Nolte (Purdue University) used results from time-lapse imaging of Austin chalk samples to promote three key areas for future research on seismic wave behavior: (1) in layered media in the transition zone between ray theory and effective medium theory, (2) for layered systems with two competing anisotropic sources, and (3) in layered fractured systems that are geochemically altered over time. The experimental results highlighted several issues related to the influence of different rock and fluid characteristics on acoustic properties. Fracture-specific stiffness will change as a consequence of precipitation and reduction of a fracture aperture, whereas the locations of fractures in a layered medium will impact interpretations of specific stiffness. Changes in flow paths, fluid saturation (velocity dispersion), and fluid substitution (seismic anisotropy) will also influence the seismic response. Further laboratory studies of petrophysical properties introduced several novel approaches to improve the link between petroacoustic signatures and the rock properties while highlighting the distinct approaches required for carbonate rocks. Efforts to improve constraints on porosity and poten-

tial permeability were targeted by Elizabeth Bemer (Institut Français du Pétrole) via a micromechanical model. By capturing microstructural characteristics, Bemer is able to compute theoretical velocities and compare these with experimental petroacoustic measurements. This, in turn, enables inversion for optimal parameters such as pore aspect ratio. The limitations of Archie’s law when applied to carbonate rocks were further highlighted by two studies from Geosciences Montpellier: using a synchrotron facility to image connected porosity and percolation clusters, Charlotte Garing (Geosciences Montpellier) illustrated a flow dependency on the critical pore size connecting the percolating network instead of the electrical formation factor or tortuosity. Discussion reinforced the need to integrate three-dimensional (3-D) imaging with core-scale geophysical properties as a consequence of the fine-scale heterogeneities (below that of the integration volume of the borehole geophysical methods) and the strong influence that these heterogeneities have on the hydrodynamic properties of the rock. In addition to pore sizes, geometry, and connectivity, reactive surface area was introduced as a new controlling parameter. Philippe Gouze (Geosciences Montpellier) presented controlled dissolution experiments to show how the pore structure changes in different ways with dissolution regimes (representing different rates of dissolution). One consequence of this is the development of distinct porosity-permeability relationships within different dissolution regimes. The importance of links between chemical and physical processes was further emphasized by Tiziana Vanorio (Stanford University) in a discussion of time-varying elastic parameters. Laboratory-based time-lapse experiments with high-resolution imaging illustrated the changes in P- and S-wave velocities resulting from injection-induced dissolution. By recognizing distinct styles of porosity-permeability modification for each carbonate facies during dissolution, an opportunity to reduce the number of parameters to model permeability and velocity trends exists. A case study from the Campos Basin, Brazil, also targeted ways to distinguish porosity and permeability associated with different facies. Abel Carrasquilla (Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense) discussed the integration of laboratory petrophysical Agar et al.


measurements with conventional logs as a means to quantify permeability and classify electrofacies. Focusing on ways to reduce the costs associated with NMR logs, the study attempted to simulate the NMR profile through the use of other conventional logs and artificial intelligence (neural network approaches proved to work better than other methods). Results for porosity were shown to be reasonable, but permeability prediction was more challenging. Seeing More The issue of linking different measurements over different scales was raised again in the context of directly imaging faults and fractures or predicting their presence from bulk volume seismic attributes. Sampling, scaling, and resolution issues limit any ability to cross-validate seismically derived fracture attributes with geologic observations of fractures. A keynote presentation by Donatella Astratti (Schlumberger) introduced various seismic attributes and time-lapse seismic data as a means to capture information on the connectivity of fracture networks. Using a chalk reservoir example, she illustrated the need to differentiate distinct generations of structures caused by their significantly different impacts on flow and their different responses to stress. Integration of the production history with the comparisons of repeated surveys was used to link changes in fault images to qualitative interpretations of changes in fault-flow behavior. A related keynote by André Revil (Colorado School of Mines) discussed time-lapse joint inversion of geophysical data as a way to reduce the nonuniqueness of the inverse problem. Using a combination of two inversion methods (active timeconstrained and structural time-lapse inversion) to simulate the inversion of cross-hole data, Revil showed the potential advantages for monitoring changes in partial saturation during the production of oil from carbonate reservoirs. Recognized benefits were the reduction in spatial artifacts in the tomograms relative to other inversion methods as well as improvements for the use of time-lapse inversion of seismic and resistivity data performed independently. Enru Liu (ExxonMobil) also made a strong case for further measurements to examine the interwell space while ensuring a full 542


understanding of the physics, limitations, and complementary nature of tools and techniques used to acquire information on different scales. In an effort to link laboratory data to field-scale seismic velocity variations and interpretations of fracture populations, Richard Gibson (Texas A&M) presented a model for effective seismic velocities in media with isotropic or aligned fracture sets. His method expresses the stress dependence of fracture compliances to the increasing contact area of roughsurfaced fractures. This provides a way to represent changes in seismic anisotropy caused by variations in stress fields while relating fracture distributions to changes in seismic amplitudes. Discussion noted, however, that whereas the presence of fractures may be determined from bulk attributes, the precise location of a given low-offset fault or large-opening mode fracture may be needed to understand specific impacts of discrete structures on flow. Ralf Oppermann (OPPtimal Exploration and Development) addressed this challenge through new workflows for automated fault extraction that integrate very highresolution 3-D seismic image processing results with detailed calibration. A key paradigm shift here is the move from subjective interpretation to objective measurements, which can highlight faults in seismic data and decrease a reliance on stochastic approaches. He showed examples where high-resolution fault extraction enabled the identification of multiple seismic fault penetrations in wells that were ground-truthed with image log data and directly linked with productivity and/or sweet spots or unfavorable fluid flow effects (drilling fluid losses, water channeling, well-to-well shortcuts, and compartmentalization). Four-dimensional ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a technique to image fractures in near-surface settings were reported by Mark Grasmueck (University of Miami). One of his previous studies focused on the Solvay quarry (Cassis) that was visited during the conference field trip. In a further quarry study, time-lapse GPR was used to show the impacts of deformation bands on near-surface flow of water. The presence of baffles caused the water to spread, but some deformation bands provided connections between strata on meter to decimeter scales. The potential use of diffractions for imaging fractures and karst was also

considered by Grasmueck. It was suggested that a combination of 3-D GPR and ray-born synthetic modeling can be used to decipher the signatures of unmigrated diffractions. Seemingly incomplete and asymmetric diffraction circles visible on time slices actually contain dip information of crosscutting fracture systems. Diagenetic impacts on the elastic properties of carbonates were also included. Using seismic-scale examples of carbonate reservoir analogs from the Southeast Basin in France, Renaud Toullec and Francois Fournier (Université Aix-Marseille) presented forward seismic models of depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities. Following a program of detailed sampling and petrophysical measurements, their study shows that sequence boundaries and unconformities will not necessarily correspond to changes in the seismic signal. Furthermore, a diagenetic overprint can generate nondepositional reflector terminations and abrupt lateral polarity changes. The Integration of Geophysical Monitoring with Production Data Several delegates sought ways to maximize the value of insights from seismic data through integration with other monitoring techniques and routine production data (e.g., more common use of cross-well tomography and wells that monitor above and below reservoirs). One approach proposed by Matt Jackson (Imperial College) discussed the use of spontaneous potential (SP) in hydrocarbon reservoirs during water flooding to detect and monitor water encroaching on a well through the use of SP and electrodes installed permanently downhole. The technique has the potential to detect increasing water saturation several meters to tens to hundreds of meters away but is still looking for developments of appropriate hardware and interpretation methods and a better understanding of the coupling coefficients involved (these relate gradients in water phase pressure, salinity, and temperature to gradients in electrical potential). In addition to novel monitoring techniques, considerable energy exists around the need to acknowledge the uncertainty in 3-D and fourdimensional seismic data and ways to reduce this uncertainty through joint inversion with other geophysical data. As a method to capture 3-D petro-

physical properties from inverted prestack seismic data, Andrew Curtis (University of Edinburgh) showed a neural network approach for fully probabilistic inversion techniques. A key advantage of this approach was an ability to represent the uncertainty associated with rock and fluid property maps derived from seismic (such as variations in effective pressure, bulk modulus, density of hydrocarbons, random noise in recorded data, and the petrophysical forward function) while realizing significant computational efficiencies. Frequent calls for better tools to integrate all the different types of data across multiple scales emphasized the need for smoother mechanisms to update models with monitoring and survey data. Moving on from geophysical insights, an interesting case study from Saudi Arabia and Kuwait (Nicole Champenoy and Scott Meddaugh, Chevron) was used to broaden the picture by drawing attention to the less commonly recognized variables that impact fluid flow. These include well deliverability, historical operations, completions, facility constraints, and reactivity. Champenoy and Meddaugh emphasized that, without appropriate measurements and monitoring, it can be hard to determine which of these has the most impact. Moreover, these factors are not necessarily at the front of a geologist’s mind when considering controls on flow. A further case study shared by Rick Wachtman (ExxonMobil) showed how a comprehensive measurement and surveillance program combined with geologic modeling was used on the Means field residual oil zone to assess recovery efficiency and potential flow streams. In this case, repeated simulations identified key factors such as proxies for fractures, high-permeability leached zones, and ratios between vertical and horizontal permeabilities as requirements to obtain a match to production histories. Complementary models were used to estimate fieldwide flow streams of a wateralternating-gas flood, providing an estimated extension of field life by 20 yr. Several delegates wanted to learn more about the extent to which fracture and fault patterns are validated by modeling and/or monitoring data. The following presentations helped to fill in some knowledge gaps while highlighting limitations and opportunities to do more. In a more data-limited Agar et al.


case study than the preceding examples, Stephen Smart (Hess) emphasized the importance of early conceptual models to develop ideas for the 3-D distribution of fracture intensity. Subsequent integration of robust data sets across various scales and several iterations with reservoir performance data were used to construct and refine a dualporosity simulation model for offshore East Java. In an assisted history matching example, Arnaud Lange (Institut Français du Pétrole) demonstrated the use of connectivity information from production data to characterize seismic and subseismic fault networks. By examining possible correlations between water breakthrough time and connectivity, Lange was able to identify the most probable fault network realizations to match the production data. Given the sensitivity of flow simulation results to different fault network realizations, the method can help to focus on the most likely scenarios. Thomas Finkbeiner (Baker Hughes) provided insights to fracture-flow properties on production time scales through geomechanical modeling of a carbonate reservoir. Key developments in this study emphasized permeability changes associated with depletion and/or injection, fracture property variations (i.e., weak vs. strong fractures), as well as the impact that would be predicted had all fracture sets been assigned the same mechanical properties and stress sensitivity. It was noted that, in carbonates where fractures may be stiffer and less stress (pressure) sensitive, stress impacts on production and injection may be far less pronounced relative to reservoir rocks containing more stress-sensitive fractures. The impact of a single fracture on well-test responses was explored by Bander Al-Quaimi (Saudi Aramco). Numerical simulation (dual porosity), inspired by a real field example, was used to generate a spectrum of well-test responses for different scenarios related to a fracture located between two wells. The results showed the impact of permeability contrasts between the fracture and the matrix in different layers as well as the connection of the fracture to different layers. Monitoring Flow on Local to Regional Scales Whereas most of the discussion focused on production time scales, a novel contribution by Apollo 544


Kok (Maersk) illustrated the concept of an “oil-onthe-move system” in which hydrocarbons are neither structurally nor dynamically trapped but still represent viable accumulations as they continue to migrate. This work has supported the development of a regional oil migration atlas based on oil expulsion, vertical migration, aquifer flow, and residual oil saturations. By performing numerical simulations of oil migration and comparing the results with known accumulations, several opportunities and potential leads were identified in the Danish North Sea Chalk.

EMERGING THEMES RELATED TO UNCERTAINTY AND PREDICTION Giovanni Bertotti (TU Delft), Gareth Jones (ExxonMobil), and Jeroen Kenter (Statoil) chaired the third session on uncertainty and prediction. Key points from this session included the following: • First principle and robust geologic concepts are lacking in reservoir models for reasons such as (1) poorly defined integration of geologic attributes and static and dynamic properties (multiscale pore system) and resulting conversion to rock types, (2) inadequate nongeologic geostatistical simulation techniques and fear to deviate from hard data in data-poor scenarios and, (3) lack of techniques to fast track model building and dynamic simulation of a wider range of models in a shorter period of time. • Workflows need to identify early the function of diagenetic modification on static and dynamic properties. Consequently, improved knowledge of diagenetic processes and related spatial trends as well as diagenetic modeling capabilities are needed to reduce uncertainty in matrix characteristics and property distributions. Organization of the few existing data sets and a concerted effort to acquire new multiscale diagenetic and/or pore system data sets will be required to validate model capabilities and realizations. Geologic databases capturing depositional rock-type assemblages from analogs, their spatial juxtaposition rules and morphometric trends, will support the detection of diagenetic modification and help to constrain pre-drill scenarios.

• Reservoir (or petrophysical) rock typing needs to go beyond basic rock classifications (e.g., texture and fabric) and incorporate many more geologic factors (e.g., diagenetic attributes, certain fracture types, juxtaposition rules, and spatial trends) while integrating static and dynamic data. • One size does not fit all—local (and when needed, refined) models may still be needed to explain flow behavior even with substantial geologic data and insights across a producing field. This is because heterogeneity varies spatially and generally increases with data quality and quantity. • Variations in fracture densities are unlikely to be fully captured by well data or properly predicted from analogs. Fracture prediction needs to include an understanding of the evolution of mechanical properties as a function of primary depositional and diagenetic factors. Mechanical modeling of carbonate rocks is still limited by the identification of appropriate mechanical properties to assign to models at different scales. Representation of depth-dependent fracture mechanisms and the evolution of rock strengths during platform development provide examples of the types of model improvements needed. • Current geostatistical techniques and practices tend to obscure the relationships between geologic concepts and permeability distributions in reservoir models. Significant opportunities to go beyond entrenched methods for geologic modeling and to invest in new and innovative techniques and workflows exist. In addition, a need for a wider range of models to be tested and/or other techniques to fast track simulation exists. • A clear need to take the art out of reservoir quality predictions and to develop more rigorous and concept-driven workflows exists. Expert opinions are rarely objective, but subjectivity can be good if it is recognized and used appropriately. The key is to be aware of the factors influencing expert opinions. Uncertainty in the Matrix Several presentations and posters addressed a range of characteristics in different carbonate facies, to predict them and to capture key attributes in geologic models and flow simulations. As a way to

“take the art out of reservoir quality predictions,” Dave Cantrell (Saudi Aramco) issued the challenge to develop quantitative process-based tools that would allow the prediction of reservoir quality ahead of the bit. Based on a pilot in the Sha’aiba, he outlined a multimodel approach to generate the initial reservoir quality (forward stratigraphic modeling) including environmental constraints (e.g., water depth, initial bathymetry, temperature, sediment accretion rates, and wind speeds) and the superimposed diagenetic modifications (calibrated kinetic cementation model). Although initial results for porosity were within two porosity units, the project has not evolved yet to the point where predicted dynamic properties and trends can be contrasted with subsurface data. Related discussion reemphasized that the origin of multiscale carbonate pore systems remains poorly understood and requires improvements through research on diagenetic modeling and the development of guidelines. Anita Csoma and Hesham El Sobky (ConocoPhillips) developed the diagenetic theme further to predict anhydrite cementation of the karst system in the San Andres Formation. When compared with deterministic petrophysical methods and other statistical approaches, a modular neural network method proved to be superior for the determination of anhydrite abundance. Given the potential impact of cemented karst features on recovery, predicted volumes and distribution of anhydrite were used in a geocellular model to delineate anhydrite-filled karst networks via multiple-point geostatistics with customized training images. Two case studies provided fundamental observations related to the distribution and origin of dolomitized reservoir intervals and their commercial significance. From Brazil, Mary Raigosa Diaz (Baker Hughes) focused on dolomites that form the best reservoir units in the Sergipe subbasin. Detailed paragenesis identified the top of high-energy carbonate banks that were subjected to complete dolomitization as the prime reservoir candidates. Reporting on the characteristics of a less commonly encountered environment in carbonate reservoirs, Ray Mitchell (ConocoPhillips) pointed out that production from the Bakken petroleum system comes mainly from interbedded, mostly dolomitic carbonate intervals interpreted to be of mostly continental Agar et al.


origin. The mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments in the Three Forks Dolomite were deposited mainly by eolian processes with heterolithic bedding (dolomite silt and mudstone) formed during wet periods. Further characterization efforts used satellite images of modern isolated carbonate platforms (Philippe Ruelland, Total) to derive lateral variations in environments of deposition to generate training images for multiple-point geostatistics. Direct sampling was used to develop facies models synchronously with models of matrix porosity before diagenesis. Overall, this cluster of posters demonstrated the increasingly sophisticated use of data to characterize matrix properties, together with the effective use of modern and recent carbonates to inform our understanding of the distribution of carbonate heterogeneities over a range of scales. Mark Skalinski (Chevron) and Jeroen Kenter (Statoil) discussed several shortcomings in the classification and use of carbonate rock types, including the need to incorporate diagenetic attributes and modification; integrating multiscale and multimodal pore types, including fractures; integrating dynamic data; and the lack of appropriate geostatistical tools. Examples from Tengiz and First Eocene (Wafra) reservoirs were used to illustrate the application of a new workflow designed to optimize petrophysical rock typing and the generation of carbonate reservoir models. Petrophysical rock types are defined as (1) the category of rocks characterized by specific ranges of petrophysical properties, (2) exhibiting distinct relationships relevant for flow characterization, (3) identified by logging surveys, and (4) linked to geologic attributes like primary texture or diagenetic modifications. The objective of this approach is to determine the petrophysical rock types that control the dynamic behavior of the reservoir while optimally linking the geologic attributes (depositional and diagenetic attributes and their hybrid combinations) and their spatial interrelationships and trends. Michel Rebelle and Cecile Pabian Goyheneche (Total) also showcased an approach to integrate reservoir geology, seismic data, engineering, and petrophysics as a more sophisticated workflow for reservoir rock typing. Jim Markello and Rick Wachtman (ExxonMobil) showed a new sequence-stratigraphic– based reservoir architecture for the Lisburne field 546


that was developed in the context of Late Pennsylvanian regional and global controls on tectonics, climate, eustasy, ocean circulation, and geologic history. The improved framework helped to guide the content of geologic models and simulations to achieve reasonable performance matches. However, even with substantial geologic and production data, the single framework could not capture local differences that impacted specific flow directions, connectivity lengths, and rates on the sector scale. A key message was “one size does not fit all.” Complementary outcrop studies of the Urgonian carbonate platform in southern France by Philippe Léonide, Francois Fournier, and Jean Borgomano (Université Aix-Marseille) suggest that early cementation influenced the preservation of tight and/or microporous units that compartmentalize the platform vertically and laterally. An association between the early diagenesis and major sequence boundaries has been recognized. By combining petrographic, diagenetic, and isotope geochemistry, they have been able to identify links among poretype distributions, micrite diagenetic patterns, and sequence stratigraphy in microporous-dominated carbonate reservoir analogs that may offer predictive capabilities. A further example of outcrop modeling was presented by Maria Mutti (University of Potsdam) based on a Jurassic carbonate ramp in Morocco. In this case, the focus was the development of a geostatistical database of geobodies and the choice of appropriate statistical modeling algorithms to represent the spatial organization of different hierarchical scales of heterogeneity. A truncated Gaussian simulation algorithm was used to represent depositional environments because of the gradational and linear trends observed between geobodies. However, the sequential indicator simulation was used for lithofacies distributions because of its flexibility in handling spatially independent lithofacies elements. Uncertainty in Fractures Delegates continued to wrestle with long-standing issues related to the prediction of fracture networks and ways to capture uncertainty in their characteristics and distributions in the subsurface. Bertrand Gauthier’s (Total) keynote presentation focused on

the need to know more about fracture networks between wells and at the scale of a reservoir model cell. Outcrop studies can complement information on fractures at a well by providing insights to the factors controlling fracture populations, which can then underpin qualitative concepts or quantitative relationships. A detailed quarry study in the Southeast Basin, France, used to construct a digital fracture network, provided several useful lessons, including the following: (1) fracture data from wells may not really be hard data because they cannot capture the full spectrum of variability in fracture densities and (2) identified relationships among one-dimensional, two-dimensional (2-D), and 3-D representations of the same fracture network may simplify the extrapolation of well data to 3-D properties in the subsurface. A broader evaluation of fracture populations across the Southeast Basin of France was reviewed by Juliette Lamarche (University of Provence) and Bertrand Gauthier (Total). The study offered a departure from more traditional mechanical stratigraphy, indicating that geographic position was more important for the mechanical properties of the carbonates than depositional facies, with early diagenesis potentially locking in mechanical differentiation of the rocks. Regional fracture patterns were also considered to be mostly unrelated to large-scale structural events. In contrast, sedimentologic controls on fractures were the focus of Chris Zahm’s (Bureau of Economic Geology) presentation. Nine vertical mechanical facies associations were linked between core and outcrop studies of facies in transgressive- and highstand-systems tracts. Both rock fabric and porosity were found to be key influences on rock strength. The vertical mechanical facies associations constrained a mechanical framework for subsurface dual-porosity simulation models and ultimately supported a pressure match to well tests and fieldwide production. In another fractured carbonate reservoir case study, Alex Assaf and Richard Steele (BG Group) addressed uncertainty in a severely heterogeneous carbonate field in North Africa. They developed multiple models (fully compartmentalized, fully open faults, and partly compartmentalized) to explore a spectrum of scenarios. Further reductions in uncertainty were realized by

integrating pressure transient analysis and numerical modeling of near wellbore effects that provided critical feedback and led to a geologically appropriate history match. Michael Welch (Rock Deformation Research Ltd.) reported on his quest to predict fractures based on outcrop studies in chalk. Examples from southeastern and northeastern England provided insights to the larger structural influences on the locations of fracture corridors and emphasized the way that rock strength (reflecting different porosities in chalk) and pore fluid pressure will impact fracture failure modes (shear or tensile). Prediction of fracture populations in flattopped carbonate platforms was addressed by Giovanni Bertotti (TU Delft). In this case, fracture generation scenarios (stress and mechanisms) were represented by first-order 3-D finite-element modeling. Key uncertainties included (1) the stress conditions that control the formation of stylolites and transitions from mode 1 to mode 2 fractures, (2) the appropriate bulk mechanical properties for a platform-scale model, and (3) the difficulty of predicting the number and dimensions of fractures. Important factors represented by this work were the depth dependence of fracture formation and large sensitivities to assumed paleostress scenarios. A further geomechanical study related to a steep-rimmed carbonate platform was presented by Vincent Heesakkers (Chevron). Two-dimensional finite-element modeling was used to represent stepwise carbonate platform development with appropriate constitutive models to reflect the different strength of facies during synsedimentary fracture development. Based on studies of the Canning Basin and the Guadalupe Mountains, such models offer insights to early fractures in large carbonate resources such as Tengiz and Karachaganak. Dave Healy (University of Aberdeen) shared insights to the variability of fault-zone properties based on outcrop analogy from Malta. The overall objective of this ongoing research is to constrain the natural statistical distributions in all of the pore-system attributes, as well as their spatial variation with respect to depositional faces and tectonic damage. In a related study, Joyce Neilson and Dave Healy (University of Aberdeen) showed how effective medium theory is being applied to translate the frequency range from ultrasonic Agar et al.


data from fractured rock to seismic scales. As such, this work supports a way to link the fracture porosity and fault properties in the Malta study to acoustic signatures and to determine how property variations are manifested in petrophysical attributes. Based on the preceding presentations, an interesting discussion developed surrounding the importance of production data as a way to provide a check on the validity of the initial geologic predictions and interpretations and, possibly, to identify their flaws. However, the time-lag between insights from production data and the development of a geologic model makes such validation less feasible. A possible solution lies in the definition of proxies to signal the quality of the model as early as possible. The sooner a shortcoming in the model is identified, the less damaging are the consequences: fail fast!

(University of Edinburgh) drew attention to the information scale gap that exists as a result of the tools and approaches available for subsurface sampling. Given the large geologic uncertainties that result from this gap, the function of expert opinions was reviewed, using examples to highlight a lack of objectivity that emerges because of group dynamics. Examples of the ways that opinions evolve in response to group dynamics have been tracked by software during discussions and raise concerns for consensus-driven outcomes. Expert elicitation, hence, is potentially a low-cost method to reduce overall uncertainties by improving the quality of how previous information is obtained and parameterized.


Uncertainty, Statistics, and Modeling Brodie Thomson (ExxonMobil) provoked the audience by addressing the failure of carbonate reservoir characterization and modeling to define the distribution and continuity of permeability extremes and to represent our geologic concepts adequately. The current practice of geostatistical methods, he argued, tends to obscure the relationship between geologic concepts and the final (and noisy) permeability distribution in the model. The effects of averaging and stacking multiple geostatistical steps can obscure flow pathways, thin baffles, and many other subtle geologic features (e.g., thin-bedded and microporous intervals and stylolites). The presentation stirred considerable discussion, dividing the delegates into those who sought greater simplification and those who sought more (appropriate) geologic influence or concepts in the model. More unified support developed around the need for a wider range of models to be tested and other techniques to fast track simulations. In addition, it was recognized that this was an area of considerable entrenchment and that significant opportunities to think outside of the box exist. Comments on the need to improve communication and integration across groups of experts reinforced the overall thinking behind the conference. In a related poster presentation, Andrew Curtis 548


The fourth session, chaired by Gary Hampson (Imperial College), Fiona Whitaker (University of Bristol), and Stephan Matthäi (Montan Universität Leoben) addressed novel modeling and simulation methods. Discussions returned to some of the initial comments related to the simulation of fundamental processes at the start of the meeting. Key messages from this session included the following: • Models can serve to integrate different data sources across multiple scales, but techniques for upscaling across several orders of magnitude in a single model remain challenging. Multiscale models offer an alternative approach that allows significant fine-scale details to be captured while maintaining computational efficiency. • Recognizing the caveats related to uncertainties in the previous session, it was still emphasized that a large amount of data are available to pursue modeling in a larger, more integrated, and strategic way, with strong opportunities to link field observations and hypothesis testing via numerical models and laboratory experiments. • Many new (or less commonly used) modeling tools are available or on the horizon (discussed in this and other sessions). We need to develop the most effective ways to use them and to seek clever and more creative applications.

• An ability to compare different models through standardization approaches, to use common models as a basis for further analysis, and to conduct collaborative research on common reservoirs and outcrops can serve to increase the overall value of modeling. • Outcrop studies are perceived to have waned in popularity, but these still have a function to play in geologic modeling and flow simulations. They provide low-cost opportunities to test out data handling and modeling techniques for different stratal and structural geometries. They can also provide reasonable geologic scenarios and assumptions for characteristics that are not easily constrained by subsurface data (e.g., fracture size distributions and effective fracture permeability). • Fracture-flow simulations would benefit from guidelines to determine when fractures and similar small pervasive heterogeneities (e.g., stylolites and karst) should be explicitly represented versus being implicitly represented by effective properties. • Fracture-flow simulations mostly ignore the impacts of fracture-associated diagenesis on sweep and fracture-matrix fluid exchange and struggle to assign appropriate aperture distributions. Further developments in RTM need to extend to fracture diagenesis as well as the matrix. • The coupling of processes in models is recognized as important but has yet to be fully realized (e.g., integrated sedimentologic DFM-RTM geomechanical models). • Developments in computational graphics and visualization offer ways to truly interact with data and models and provide opportunities to represent the associated uncertainty. • The essentials of geologic heterogeneity and evolving flow patterns must be captured in a reservoir simulation for better production forecasting; however, this is normally not achieved with the current, industry-standard reservoir simulators. • In light of the above, many geologic and simulation models constructed using standard tools and workflows are unnecessarily complex in some regard, simplistic in others, and their construction is too time intensive to allow assessment of multiple scenarios and uncertainty. New modeling and visualization tools can help to tackle these

issues, but their effective exploitation probably requires a shift in the mindset of the user. It is commonly more useful to generate a suite of simple models that encompass different scenarios and uncertainty (while representing key heterogeneities and flow processes realistically) than to generate a small number of detailed models anchored to a single scenario, which may fail to represent key aspects of the system of interest. Simulating Matrix Properties Over Different Scales Further reinforcing the need to integrate different data sources across multiple scales, Chris Nichols (Shell) focused on inputs for upscaling based on information from core-plug to whole-core scales. Three case studies were used by Nichols to show how different data (core plug, logs, and core) can lead to different impressions of porosity and permeability. A key message here was the need to examine rock types in both the petrophysical and geologic space. This integration can help to determine approaches to handle different types of heterogeneities for a given rock type while shaping guidelines to upscale from core to log to cell scales. Michael Sukop (Florida International University) very effectively demonstrated how dense data–driven variograms from borehole images of relatively young carbonates in Florida appear to capture high-frequency stratigraphic cycles and can be used to generate 3-D volumes for borehole-scale lattice Boltzmann flow simulations and thereby extend the scale of application of direct flow simulation. Limitations of readily available geostatistical software to accommodate the complex variogram structure led to simulations that overrepresented the horizontal continuity and underestimated vuggy porosity. By expanding applications of the lattice Boltzmann method to boreholescale simulations of flow for vuggy carbonates (much larger than the usual pore-scale applications), Sukop confirmed reasonable agreement with other experimentally derived estimates of permeability. Advances for Fracture-Flow Simulation Robin Hui (Chevron) introduced this theme with a keynote presentation on an in-depth sensitivity Agar et al.


analysis using a DFM, where fractures and matrix are both represented in a dynamic model using an unstructured grid. The study highlighted the challenge of applying appropriate numerical approaches to the simulation of flow on a geologically driven grid structure. Whereas the DFM technology enables the inclusion of aperture and length-displacement scaling from outcrop-analog data, solid guidelines to determine when to draw the line between explicitly represented fractures and those represented by effective properties do not exist yet. Such decisions can be influenced by gridding and other software considerations and, also, by geologic rationale. Questions were raised concerning the value of running a DFM as opposed to conventional approaches and if different business decisions would have resulted from using more traditional dual porosity and/or dual-permeability simulation approaches. The need for a comparative study to determine these factors was also discussed. Wayne Narr (Chevron) generated much interest in his work characterizing syndepositional fracturing from the Devonian Canning Basin, features similar to those seen in the recent as well as reservoirs such as Tengiz but very different from fracturing that occurs after burial. Supporting the value of outcrop-based studies for the subsurface, the Canning Basin data compilations of fracture sizes and their relationships to stratigraphy have been shown to complement well data and provide useful guidelines to constrain flow simulations of the Tengiz field. A further case study presented by Jim Sylte (ConocoPhillips) demonstrated how dynamic data have been integrated for a period of 25 yr to monitor the influence of fractures and stylolites during waterflooding of the Ekofisk chalk reservoir. The duration of the study reinforces the value of continuing to reevaluate and integrate data with simulations as new technology brings further insights and as enhanced oil recovery projects pose new challenges. Iryna Malinouskaya (Université Pierre et Marie Curie) demonstrated the use of 2-D outcrop data from a Jurassic carbonate ramp in Morocco to calculate the 3-D tensor for fracture permeability. The approach is being used to explore the impact of different fracture network characteristics on effective permeability. In some cases, differences in fracture populations will have a substantial impact 550


on the effective permeability, but in others, the details may not make that much difference. Ole Petter Wennberg (Statoil) showed the implications for fluid flow of the development of a cemented zone around a fracture and patchy matrix cement alone. Preliminary results indicate that cement distribution exerts a primary influence on simulation outcomes and that the presence of cement at the matrix-fracture interface should be factored into history matching and upscaling efforts. The study elegantly created anticipation for the Notre Dame de Beauregard outcrop, which was seen during the field trip. Following previous sessions in which fracture impacts were discussed, this session reinforced that the simplifications we commonly make about the effect of fractures on flow are problematic. This occurs not only on the reservoir scale for reservoir characterization and flow simulation, but also where fractures are represented in 2-D, ignoring fluid circulation in the fracture plane and incorporating simplistic assumptions about fracture apertures. Reactive Transport Modeling A keynote presentation by Nicole Champenoy and Scott Meddaugh (Chevron) discussed advanced methods to characterize permeability heterogeneity and to handle steamflood RTM. Based on 2-D RTMs, steam injection was predicted to drive calcite and brucite precipitation, dissolution of dolomite, and conversion of gypsum to anhydrite. Discussions emphasized the need to anticipate potential changes in flow behavior, the need to understand the physics of displacement, the need for technical knowledge to guide the use of various software tools, and the impact of grid design. Opportunities to develop more sophisticated RTMs were illustrated using examples of replacement dolomitization by Fiona Whitaker (University of Bristol), who also explored some of the hurdles that need to be overcome to generate more meaningful simulations. Such challenges include the feedbacks between depositional and diagenetic sediment texture, permeability and reactivity, the relative importance of various forcing mechanisms, and the sensitivity of an environmental system to changes in any of these forcing processes. Scenarios for dolomitization were also discussed by Conxita Taberner (Shell) in the

context of density-driven flow. Two-dimensional RTM simulations were used to predict geometries (layered dolomite bodies vs. irregular fingerlike bodies) resulting from (1) hypersaline brine reflux and (2) thermally driven flow. Potentially beneficial links were evident within this cluster of posters, for example, RTM simulations offering a route to generate rules and to describe diagenetic geobodies that could usefully feed into geologic models. Enrique Gomez-Rivas (University of Tuebingen) proposed a crustal-scale mechanism for the emergence of a self-organized flow system that may explain the development of localized alteration such as hydrothermal mineralization along fault zones. Advances in Geologic Modeling, Data Visualization, and Interaction Methods Contributions related to static modeling of both matrix and fracture properties introduced significant developments. In this cluster of posters, Gregory Benson (ExxonMobil) exemplified the workflow for collecting and interpreting data from detailed field studies and LIDAR imaging to construct a geologic model of a Miocene outcrop in southeastern Spain. In ongoing efforts to ensure compatibility of various flow simulation studies, Benson introduced a “standard property calculator” as a means to standardize assignment of reservoir properties. Gary Hampson (Imperial College) demonstrated the principles and application of a pragmatic surface-based modeling approach. The approach is still limited by several factors, including selection of an appropriate level in the hierarchy, gradations in geologic characteristics, and the incorporation of fracture and diagenetic heterogeneities. Nevertheless, the technology offers improvements related to the next generation of unstructured mesh simulators. The surface-based modeling approach was applied by Peter Fitch (Imperial College) to a Jurassic ramp system to systematically investigate controls on patterns of multiphase fluid flow. In combination with experimental design techniques, the objective is to develop insights to the impact of heterogeneities on flow in carbonates as a means to support the prioritization of effort during geologic model construction. A completely different approach presented by Claude-

Alain Hassler (Shell) used the numerically efficient cellular automata (CA) method. The technique provides a way to incorporate simple diagenesis in reservoir models. Although the CA method is widely used, its application to reservoir modeling has been very limited. Perceived benefits include improvements on classic variogram-based methods through the application of stochastic rules, straightforward conditioning to existing data, and capabilities to represent complex geometries. Providing a link to the field trip, Jean Borgomano (Université Aix-Marseille) introduced work in the carbonates group of the University Aix-Marseille and their research on generic learning from outcrops that can be translated to relevance in the subsurface (e.g., correlation length scales and rules). Using mainly Cretaceous carbonates in the Provence region, the group has developed an impressive suite of sedimentologic, petrophysical, LIDAR, and seismic data integrated across multiple scales. It was emphasized that the required level of detail is not always obvious at the outset of a study and, echoing points raised in the first session, opportunities to link multiple models at different scales exist. This presentation also served to introduce several poster contributions by students and postdoctoral students at the University of Provence for a special session that recognized their contributions to field-trip organization and local logistics for the conference. A strong contender for the most glamorous presentation, Mario Costa Sousa (University of Calgary) shared novel approaches to visualization and data interaction. Examples emphasized the need to interact with data as opposed to simply observing them, showing ways to tear apart or zoom into reservoir simulation model results and to construct 3-D objects from 2-D sketches. Discussions noted that such impressive visualization methods still have the potential to mask significant uncertainty and that geologists and engineers may be awed by the visualization, masking the underlying data; however, more flexible visualization would actually help to query simulation results more robustly. In addition, generalists (and others) examining data by these methods would benefit from simultaneous representations of uncertainty. The concept of a Google Earth style interface for zooming in and out of models was Agar et al.


proposed during the discussion as a way to link data and models across different scales. Venture Groups Recharged from the field trip, delegates self-organized to form five venture groups from the 20 venture groups initially proposed. Each venture group comprised 10 or more delegates representing different disciplines (geology vs. engineering) and background (industry vs. academia). For the next day, each venture group came up with a well-defined research project with a clearly identified hypothesis, research goal, and research plan, including an idea for an endproduct that could be rolled out to the industry. The topics proposed were as follows: 1. Diagenetic and structural controls on flow models: The aim was to build a multidimensional matrix that will allow isolation of variables driving the resulting 3-D distribution reservoir quality properties useful both at exploration and production stages. 2. Geoprinting: The aim was to develop 3-D printing technology to create large-scale (tens of meters), integrated dynamic analog models for carbonate reservoirs to experiment with geology, fluid flow, geophysics, and geomechanics. 3. Disconnect between geology and reservoir characterization: The aim was to develop an app to fast track the creation and validation of 3-D reservoir models and test multiple flow and geologic scenarios. 4. Multiscale field experiment (from 10–6 to 102 m2): The aim was to study flow processes over more than eight orders of magnitude in length scale— from laboratory to field, including the excavation of the field site for reconstructing the 3-D geology—to revolutionize flow simulation tools used for reservoir predictions. 5. Wettability engineering: The aim was to develop a flexible toolkit that accurately predicts reservoir wettability at the pore scale and suggests the best recovery mechanism, based on the fundamental physics and chemistry, to increase production from carbonate reservoirs.



Crossing the Academic-Industry Divide As noted above, this Hedberg Conference achieved many of its success measures, defining promising new research directions that are being shared with the global scientific community through this article and a special conference volume anticipated later in 2014. New connections were formed, and delegates developed interesting ideas for collaborations and research proposals. However, there is much that remains to be done to strengthen industry-academic collaboration. Discussion drew attention to the fact that industry-academic collaboration may be limited by the extent to which academics are aware of routine industry applications and the awareness of novel research advances in academia by industry representatives. These shortcomings limited the abilities of delegates to identify opportunities for research advances through collaboration. Several academics wanted to learn more about the basic modeling assumptions used in industry, the knowledge gaps, and the opportunities that might exist to contribute fundamental geologic data. Industry researchers needed opportunities to learn about the assumptions and methods implicit in novel modeling techniques and advances in fundamental science. In the experience of the conveners, this is a problem that extends far beyond the research needs for carbonate reservoirs. There was a call to be more organized and united in our data collection. Significant valuable data sets have been collected through the years both by industry and academia. Given this, it would be beneficial for the combined industry and academic community to adopt a coordinated approach in which the data would be more accessible and comparable, as per recommendations of Rudy Swennen (KU Leuven).

REFERENCES CITED Agar, S. M., 2009, The (FC)2 Alliance: An innovation portal for research on the fundamental controls on flow in carbonates: International Petroleum Technology Conference Paper MS-13175, Doha, Qatar, December 7–9, 2009, 9 p. Owen, H., 2012, Open space technology: San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc., 200 p.

Deposits of the sandy braided South Saskatchewan River: Implications for the use of modern analogs in reconstructing channel dimensions in reservoir characterization Ian A. Lunt, Gregory H. Sambrook Smith, James L. Best, Philip J. Ashworth, Stuart N. Lane, and Christopher J. Simpson

ABSTRACT Estimation of the dimensions of fluvial geobodies from core data is a notoriously difficult problem in reservoir modeling. To try and improve such estimates and, hence, reduce uncertainty in geomodels, data on dunes, unit bars, cross-bar channels, and compound bars and their associated deposits are presented herein from the sand-bed braided South Saskatchewan River, Canada. These data are used to test models that relate the scale of the formative bed forms to the dimensions of the preserved deposits and, therefore, provide an insight as to how such deposits may be preserved over geologic time. The preservation of bed-form geometry is quantified by comparing the alluvial architecture above and below the maximum erosion depth of the modern channel deposits. This comparison shows that there is no significant difference in the mean set thickness of dune crossstrata above and below the basal erosion surface of the contemporary channel, thus suggesting that dimensional relationships between dune deposits and the formative bed-form dimensions are likely to be valid from both recent and older deposits. The data show that estimates of mean bankfull flow depth derived from dune, unit bar, and cross-bar channel deposits are all very similar. Thus, the use of all these metrics together can provide a useful check that all components and scales of the

Copyright ©2013. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved. Manuscript received October 11, 2011; provisional acceptance January 16, 2012; revised manuscript received August 2, 2012; final acceptance September 25, 2012. DOI:10.1306/09251211152

AAPG Bulletin, v. 97, no. 4 (April 2013), pp. 553–576


AUTHORS Ian A. Lunt Statoil ASA, Sandsliveien 90, P.O. Box 7190, N-5020 Bergen, Norway; present address: Statoil, 308-4th Avenue SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P OH7, Canada; [emailprotected] Ian Lunt is a fluvial sedimentologist and completed his Ph.D. at Binghamton University with John Bridge in 2002 before undertaking postdoctoral research at the University of California at Berkeley and the Universities of Leeds and Birmingham (United Kingdom). He worked as a research geologist with Statoil in Bergen, Norway, since 2007, before recently moving to Statoil Canada in Calgary. Gregory H. Sambrook Smith School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Gregory Sambrook Smith is based at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, and completed his Ph.D. in 1994 at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom. His research uses a range of geophysical tools to quantify the alluvial architecture of sand and silt bed rivers. He also investigates flow in porous media using a range of novel experimental methods. James L. Best Departments of Geology, Geography, Mechanical Science and Engineering and Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1301 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801; [emailprotected] James Best was appointed to the Threet Chair in Sedimentary Geology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2006, after 18 years at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. His research investigates the relationships between fluid flow and morphodynamics using laboratory experiments and studies of modern and ancient sedimentary environments. He was editor of Sedimentology, the flagship journal of the International Association of Sedimentologists from 1998 to 2002. Philip J. Ashworth Division of Geography, School of the Environment, University of Brighton, Sussex BN2 4GJ United Kingdom; [emailprotected] Philip Ashworth is a professor of physical geography at the University of Brighton, United

Kingdom. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Stirling and then lectured at the University of Leeds for 10 years. His research interests include big river dynamics, processform relations in braided rivers and alluvial stratigraphy. He has worked with the petroleum industry for more than 25 years. Stuart N. Lane Institut de Géographie, Faculté des Géosciences et de l’Environnement, Université de Lausanne, Lausanne CH-1015 Switzerland; [emailprotected] Stuart Lane, currently at Université de Lausanne, Switzerland, is a world leader in the development of remote sensing techniques for quantifying river morphodynamics. This work has been developed during periods at the Universities of Cambridge, Leeds, and Durham (United Kingdom) over the past 20 years. He is currently the editor of the prestigious geomorphology journal Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Christopher J. Simpson Fulcrum Graphic Communications Inc., TH2-168, Esplanade Avenue East, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7L 4X8 Canada; [emailprotected] Christopher Simpson is proficient in geomatics and currently works for Fulcrum Graphic Communications Inc. in Calgary. He has an M.Sc. from the University of Calgary in fluvial geomorphology and uses these skills to acquire and synthesize large geospatial data sets for later analysis. In his current job, he also produces graphics and designs project Web pages for a wide range of clients. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by grants NER/A/ S/2003/00538 and NE/D005701/1 to G. H. Sambrook Smith, P. J. Ashworth, J. L. Best, and S. N. Lane from the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council. We are grateful to the many people who helped in the field and especially to John Bridge who provided much advice on this project in his capacity as a visiting researcher. Derald Smith, University of Calgary, kindly loaned a zodiac boat and outboard motors. Bill Vavra allowed us access to the river from his land, and Bob and Sandy Stephenson at the Irrigation Motel in Outlook are thanked for their fantastic hospitality and logistical help during our fieldwork. The AAPG Editor thanks the following reviewers for their work on this article: Christopher Fielding and Brian J. Willis. 554

alluvial architecture have been identified correctly when building reservoir models. The data also highlight several practical issues with identifying and applying data relating to crossstrata. For example, the deposits of unit bars were found to be severely truncated in length and width, with only approximately 10% of the mean bar-form length remaining, and thus making identification in section difficult. For similar reasons, the deposits of compound bars were found to be especially difficult to recognize, and hence, estimates of channel depth based on this method may be problematic. Where only core data are available (i.e., no outcrop data exist), formative flow depths are suggested to be best reconstructed using cross-strata formed by dunes. However, theoretical relationships between the distribution of set thicknesses and formative dune height are found to result in slight overestimates of the latter and, hence, mean bankfull flow depths derived from these measurements. This article illustrates that the preservation of fluvial crossstrata and, thus, the paleohydraulic inferences that can be drawn from them, are a function of the ratio of the size and migration rate of bed forms and the time scale of aggradation and channel migration. These factors must thus be considered when deciding on appropriate length:thickness ratios for the purposes of object-based modeling in reservoir characterization.

INTRODUCTION Depositional models for sandy braided rivers are used commonly to interpret ancient fluvial deposits in core and outcrop and to simulate the subsurface geometry of fluvial reservoirs using stochastic simulations. Such models of sandy braided fluvial deposits have been based on studies of both modern rivers (e.g., Coleman, 1969; Collinson, 1970; Smith, 1971; Miall, 1977; Cant and Walker, 1978; Blodgett and Stanley, 1980; Bridge et al., 1986, 1998; Bristow, 1987, 1993a; Jordan and Pryor, 1992; Fielding et al., 1999; Best et al., 2003; Skelly et al., 2003; Bridge and Lunt, 2006; Sambrook Smith et al., 2006, 2009; Horn et al., 2012) and outcrops (Smith, 1970; McCabe, 1977; Hazeldine, 1983; Bristow, 1993b; Willis, 1993; Miall and Jones, 2003). However, despite these numerous studies, limited data are available concerning the thickness and lateral extents of differing depositional facies from modern rivers, mostly because the extensive data sets that would be required are expensive and time consuming to generate (Tye, 2004). This paucity of information represents a particular weakness in the input to fluvial reservoir models because the dimensions of all scales of modern surface bar and bed forms

Using Modern Analogs to Reconstruct Channel Dimensions

Figure 1. (A) Location of Outlook, Saskatchewan, Canada; (B) location of study site on South Saskatchewan River, near Outlook.

should be related to their associated deposits and, hence, provide a powerful tool for reconstructing the scale of a paleoriver from the dimensions of a range of preserved strata sets. Given this relative paucity of quantitative data from modern rivers, the most advanced and widely used scaling relationships are thus mostly based on experimental work with a particular focus on alluvial dunes (e.g., Paola and Borgman, 1991; Leclair and Bridge, 2001), although such relationships remain to be tested fully in the field (however; see Leclair, 2011, for a notable exception). Additionally, while scaling relationships have been developed for dunes and their stratal sets, less progress has been made for bars (Bridge and Lunt, 2006; Hajek and Heller, 2012). This article addresses these issues and provides an analysis of the South Saskatchewan River, Canada, which is one of the type rivers that has been adopted for facies models of sandy braided rivers (Miall, 1977), and their associated depositional records. The aim of this article is to establish scaling relationships between subsurface deposits and their formative surface morphology. These results add to the relatively small pool of data from modern rivers to aid in constraining the limits of the dimensions of different lithofacies used in objectbased reservoir models. This development may be significant because, as demonstrated by Tye (2004), relatively small changes in the dimensions of sedi-

mentary units used in object-based reservoir models can have a significant impact on the resultant modeled sand-body distribution. Specific objectives of this article are to (1) use topographic data to quantify the dimensions of surface morphological features in a sandy braided river, such as dunes, bars, and channel fills; (2) quantify the dimensions and grain-size characteristics of the preserved deposits of dunes, bars, and channel fills using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and cores; (3) assess how the geometry of the deposits changes with depth within the preserved sediments and specifically above and below the basal erosion surface of the modern channel; and (4) generate quantitative relationships between the formative bedform dimensions and resultant deposits observed in outcrop, core, or GPR profiles to ascertain their preservation potential.

STUDY AREA This study was undertaken along a 10-km (6-mi) reach of the South Saskatchewan River, near Outlook, Saskatchewan (Figure 1). Full details of the site have been described previously (see Cant and Walker, 1978; Sambrook Smith et al., 2005, 2006), and so, only a brief summary is provided here. The channel belt is approximately 0.6 km (0.37 mi) Lunt et al.


Figure 2. Aerial photographs of the two primary study areas used in this study showing dunes, unit bars, and compound bars in the South Saskatchewan River. Also shown are the groundpenetrating radar (GPR) survey lines and core locations from which the analysis discussed in the text was derived. Locations of radar data shown in Figures 5 and 6 are also shown.

wide, has an average slope of 0.00023, and is incised into Quaternary glaciofluvial and Cretaceous siliciclastic deposits by up to 30 m (98 ft). Mean grain size, as measured from 365 sediment samples taken from the river bed, ranges from 0.01 to 0.7 mm (0.0004 to 0.028 in.), which encompasses sediments from silty clays to gravelly sands, with a mean of 0.34 mm (0.013 in.). The South Saskatchewan River was impounded by the Gardiner Dam in 1967, which is 25 km (15.5 mi) upstream of the study site. Bed elevation surveys at a series of cross sections have been surveyed since 1964 (Phillips, 2003) and indicate 556

that the river has not experienced any statistically significant change in mean bed elevation near Outlook since impoundment. However, peak discharge has fallen since 1967, with mean annual peak discharge pre- and postdam construction being 1536 and 595 m3 s−1 (54,243 and 21,012 ft3 s−1), respectively. The river now has low-suspended sediment concentrations, which allows observation of the river bed using aerial photographs during floods (Lane et al., 2010). Channels are dominated by dunes (Figure 2) as much as approximately 0.5 m (1.6 ft) high. Besides these dunes, the river is also characterized by

Using Modern Analogs to Reconstruct Channel Dimensions

Table 1. Acquisition Parameters and Processing Steps for GPR Profiles Acquisition Parameters

Processing Steps

Bartop GPR profiles Frequency Antenna separation Shot spacing Sampling interval Stacks

200 MHz 0.75 m 0.1 m 0.4 ns 16

High-pass filter Bandpass filter Set time-zero AGC gain function Static correction

20 MHz 21-40-150-300 Airwave peak 10 ns window From GPS data

In-channel GPR profiles Frequency Antenna separation Shot spacing Sampling interval Stacks

225 MHz 0.5 m 0.1 m 0.4 ns 16

Trace interpolation High-pass filter Bandpass filter Set time-zero AGC gain function Static correction Split-step migration

20 MHz 21-40-150-300 Airwave peak 10 ns window From GPS data Using two-region velocity model

lobate unit bars (Figure 2) that have heights equivalent to the channel depth, with typical values as much as approximately 1.5 m (5 ft). Compound bars, which are defined as comprising two or more unit bars, may be as much as approximately 800 × 400 m (2625 × 1312 ft) in spatial extent. Cross-bar channels are observed eroding into compound bars, with widths as much as 10 m (3300 ft) and depths of approximately 0.5 m (1.6 ft). Eolian reworking of nonvegetated bar-top surfaces is common and can create both eolian ripples and small barchan dunes, although both of these have a low preservation potential.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Cores, GPR profiles, topographic measurements, and grain-size samples were collected on compound bars from two different reaches of the study area (Figure 2).

164 ft) apart, which allowed the larger scales of stratification associated with unit bars to be mapped in three dimensions. The vertical resolution of the GPR profiles is about 0.2 m (0.66 ft), and thus, it was only used to resolve deposits relating to crossbar channels and bars. Those measurements associated with dunes were derived from core (the method is described below). Ground-penetrating radar data were collected by moving the antennae continuously at a constant speed and at a fixed separation across the ground, instead of remaining stationary, whereas the shot was gathered, as this reduced the time of acquisition without loss of data quality. The GPR acquisition parameters and processing steps are shown in Table 1. The frequency spectrum of the data was used to determine the cutoffs for dewow and bandpass filters, and the GPR data were not migrated to preserve spatial relationships between the strata sets. The mean radar velocity determined from common midpoint (CMP) profiles was 0.05 ± 0.003 m ns−1 (0.16 ± 0.009 ft ns−1).

Subsurface Data Topographic Surveys Approximately 30 km (19 mi) of GPR data were collected on a rectilinear grid on exposed bar surfaces (Figure 2) using a pulseEkko 100 GPR with unshielded 200 MHz antennas. Ground-penetrating radar profiles were spaced 25 and 50 m (82 and

Dune and unit bar heights were quantified using topographic data from (1) digital elevation models (DEM) derived from aerial photographs (May 2003, May 2004, September 2004, and August 2005; full Lunt et al.


Figure 3. Examples of topographic data used in the study as derived from (A) digital elevation models (DEMs), (B) echosounder, and (C) boat-based GPR surveys. The photograph shows the locations of each of the survey lines. 558

Using Modern Analogs to Reconstruct Channel Dimensions

Table 2. Summary of Primary Characteristics of Radar Facies Used in This Study

details of the DEM methodology are given in Lane et al. (2010); (2) a boat-based echosounder survey (September 2005); and (3) a boat-based GPR survey (September 2005). The DEMs enabled data to be collected from across the study reach, whereas the echosounder and GPR surveys provided additional data from the main channels for another period and discharge for which no aerial photographs were available. In September 2005, a bathymetric sonar was used for mapping the bed topography of the main thalweg where flow depths were greater than approximately 1 m (3.3 ft). At the same time, a boat-based GPR survey of the shallower sections of the channel was also undertaken using a Sensors & Software Noggin system with shielded 250 MHz antennae. Although there was no penetration into the subsurface using this GPR approach, the dielectric contrast between the water and channel bed provided detailed topographic data comparable to that of the echosounder (see Table 1 for summary). Depths acquired from the sonar and GPR were combined with positional information using differential global positioning system. Measurements for all three methods were precise to within 0.01 m (0.033 ft) horizontally and 0.02 m (0.066 ft) vertically, examples of which are illustrated in Figure 3.

Grain Size Three hundred and sixty five sediment samples were collected from both exposed and subaqueous bar surfaces using a dredge sampler (Phillips, 2003) in the deepest parts of the channels. Grain-size distributions of dry samples were determined using laser particle size analysis for sediment less than 2 mm (0.08 in.) diameter and by sieving for sediment coarser than 2 mm (0.08 in.). The weight percentage of the coarse fractions was converted to a volume percentage and combined with the volume percentage of laser-sampled fractions to determine the overall grain-size distribution. Cores Cores were collected using both vibracoring (Smith, 1984) and suction coring (Van de Meene et al., 1979; Méndez et al., 2003) methods. The cores were 0.076 m (0.35 ft) in diameter and as much as 4.2 m (13.78 ft) long and did not suffer any compaction. Liquefaction and rodding, in which sediment is pushed in front of the core pipe, affected some vibracores, but were minor in the suction cores. Epoxy peels were made of the cores by cutting the cores in half along their length, and pouring Lunt et al.


Figure 4. Sequence of aerial photographs showing the location of the GPR profile and the change in bed topography of reach B between (A) 2002, (B) 2003, and (C) 2004. (D) Radar profile taken in 2004 as indicated by red line in (C). The green and blue lines represent the bar surface in 2003 and 2002, respectively, with locations of the radar line relative to the channel configuration at those times shown in (A) and (B). The basal erosion surface of the modern channel at this location is denoted by the yellow line (D). Representative examples of the radar facies are indicated by numbers (the box indicates the spatial extent of the channel cut and fill that relates to radar facies 4). The labels a and b refer to the most recent unit bars that have been deposited at this site; note how they thicken in a downstream direction (flow right to left in all panels) as indicated by the arrows.

epoxy resin onto the exposed surface. The differential permeability of the sediment resulted in excellent preservation of the sedimentary structures that were then photographed and logged.

the radar data. The methodology used to analyze the different data sets is described below.

RADAR AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS The data reported herein extend the work of Sambrook Smith et al. (2006) by providing greater detail on the process-product relationship, which has been enabled by the greater spatial coverage of GPR surveys, more common acquisition of imagery and collection of cores. A more quantitative analysis, over and beyond identification of radar facies, is also possible using the combination of sequential aerial photographs and cores that provide detail on the deposits of smaller bed forms (e.g., ripples and dunes) that are below the resolution of 560

As reported in Sambrook Smith et al. (2006), four primary radar facies (see Table 2 for summary) can be identified within the GPR data from the South Saskatchewan River (Figure 4D): (1) highangle reflections (from 6° to angle of repose), interpreted as large-scale inclined cross-strata formed by the migration of bar margins; (2) discontinuous or undular trough-shaped reflections, interpreted as medium- and small-scale cross-stratification formed by sinuous crested dunes; (3) low-angle reflections, less than 6°, interpreted as small-scale cross-strata formed by the migration of bed forms below the resolution of the radar; and (4) reflections of variable

Using Modern Analogs to Reconstruct Channel Dimensions

Figure 5. Example to illustrate how the radar profiles are interpreted for later quantitative analysis; see Figure 2 for location. This profile, taken in an along-stream orientation with flow left to right, shows the main unit bar (green) and cross-bar channel fill (brown) deposits. UD = upstream-dipping surfaces. Colored lines are bar surfaces in 2004 (red), 2003 (green), 2002 (blue), and the basal erosion surface of the modern channel at this location (yellow).

dip angle that are enclosed by a concave reflection, interpreted as cross-bar channel fills or bartop hollows (Best et al., 2006). The origin of the radar facies has been determined by comparing the GPR profiles with the formative bed forms identified from the aerial photographs. This methodology allows the evolution of the channel to be tracked using the imagery, whereas the DEMs derived from these images provide data on channel topography through time. For example, during periods of lower flow (Figure 4B, C), change within the channel is relatively modest, with the migration of dunes and unit bars within channels and minor changes occurring in the planform of the compound bar. However, higher flows (Figure 4A, B) resulted in significant reworking of compound bars and more substantial channel migration. These higher flows resulted in major changes in bed morphology caused by the lateral and downstream migration of channels, which led to the erosion of compound bars and the formation of new compound bars by the amalgamation of dunes and unit bars (Figure 4A, B). The location of new compound bars was determined from either the pre-existing bed topography or the planform channel geometry. The DEM surfaces can then be merged with the GPR profiles and used to identify and highlight the deposits of individual bed forms. For example, the position of unit bar fronts evidently on aerial photographs from 2003 (Figure 4B) corresponds exactly to the extent of high-angle crossstrata seen in the GPR profiles (Figure 4D, indicated by arrows). Similar radar facies have been observed in other bars in the South Saskatchewan River (Sambrook Smith et al., 2006) and within other rivers (i.e., Best et al., 2003; Bridge and Lunt, 2006; Horn et al., 2012). Figure 4 also exemplifies the overall alluvial architecture of compound bars commonly found in sandy braided rivers. For instance, the compound bar at this location comprises two stacked unit bars (labeled a and b in Figure 4D). In both alongstream and across-stream orientations, the crosssets formed by unit bars are composed of subhorizontal reflections that steepen from less than 6 to about 22° as the cross-set thickness increases in a downdip direction (see arrows in Figure 4D). Lunt et al.


Figure 6. Example to illustrate how the radar profiles are interpreted for later quantitative analysis; see Figure 2 for location. This profile, taken in a cross-stream orientation, shows the main unit bar (green) and cross-bar (brown) channel-fill deposits. Colored lines are the basal erosion surface of the bar in 2002 (light blue) and the margins of the 2002 compound bar (dark blue), which have prograded by deposition of unit-bar deposits. In 2003, the upper part of the compound bar was truncated (green) and also experienced aggradation (purple) by deposition of sediment transported as dunes and unit bars. The bar surface in 2004 is indicated by the red line; flow is into the page.

These cross-sets commonly terminate in concaveupward reflections that may represent channel fills or confluence scours at the downstream end of a compound bar (black outlined box in Figure 4). This methodology thus permits the identification of the explicit links between process and product and allows (1) confidence in the interpretation of the deposits of other unit bars and cross-bar channels in the radar surveys and (2) the radar surveys to be categorized comprehensively (see examples shown in Figures 5, 6). In contrast to the deposits above the basal erosion surface of the modern channel, those below this surface cannot be linked explicitly with their formative depositional processes. The modern channel base is defined herein by a persistent reflection seen within the radar profiles at an elevation equivalent to the channel depth within the study reach (Figures 4–6). Bed scour did not occur below this surface during a 1-in-40-year flood event in the summer of 2005 (Sambrook Smith et al., 2010). On this basis, it is inferred that this erosion surface is the level down to which the modern channel has scoured. If radar facies (from GPR) and grain-size variations (from core) are similar in the deposits above and below this erosion surface, then this provides the best basis for inferring that their origins are similar. 562

Our data clearly show that the radar facies observed above the basal erosion surface of the modern channel are also observed below this level (Figure 7), and that the sedimentary architecture of these facies is very similar to the deposits above the erosion surface (Figures 4–6). We can thus infer that the origin of the deposits below the basal erosion surface of the modern channel is broadly similar to that above it, thus allowing direct comparison between the two data sets to examine which

Figure 7. Percentage of radar facies with depth in the deposits. The proportions of facies 1 and 3 below the basal erosion surface are much smaller than those above. The basal erosion surface varies in elevation but is generally at about 3 m (10 ft) depth. Facies 1 is high-angle inclined reflections, facies 2 is discontinuous undular or trough-shaped reflections, facies 3 is low-angle reflections, and facies 4 is reflections of variable dip enclosed by a concave reflection (see Table 2).

Using Modern Analogs to Reconstruct Channel Dimensions

Figure 8. (A) Dune heights measured for May 2004 (flow ∼ 61 m3 s-1 [2154 ft3 s-1]) and August 2005 (flow ∼ 600 m3 s-1 [21,188 ft3 s-1]); (B) dune wavelengths as measured for the same periods as above. For 2004, n = 74, and for 2005, n = 85.

parts of the formative bed forms are likely to have been preserved. However, note that this need not always be the case; for example, Horn et al. (2012) document how discharge has decreased in the Holocene on the Platte River and produced a significant change in the associated alluvial architecture. Based on data from the entire study reach, including cores, detailed descriptions of the deposits are provided below.

ORIGIN AND SCALE OF DEPOSITS Dunes Mean dune height is approximately 0.15 m (0.49 ft) under low-flow conditions (17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft).

Overpressure Distribution Pore pressures in the northern Malay Basin have been directly measured from 990 WFTs and 20 DSTs. Overpressures (pore-pressure gradients >11.5 MPa/km [>0.508 psi/ft]) are observed in 285 WFTs and DSTs in 21 of the 30 wells examined in this study (Figure 3). Nine wells that did not contain overpressures (having only WFT measurements that exhibited hydrostatic pressures) are all located in the northwest part of the study region, indicating that overpressures primarily occur in the southeastern part of the northern Malay Basin (Figure 3). Furthermore, the maximum porepressure gradient measured from each well reveals that overpressure magnitude increases toward the southeast and toward the center of the basin (Figure 3). Overpressures are stratigraphically constrained in the northern Malay Basin, being primarily observed in the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations, with minor mild overpressures observed in the lowermost 2D, uppermost FM1, and lower FM1 formations. Indeed, 262 of the 285 overpressured WFT and DST measurements in the northern Malay Basin, including all of the moderate- and high-

magnitude overpressures (>14.0 MPa/km; >0.619 psi/ft), are observed in the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations. The overpressures observed in formations 2D and FM1 are all located near the top of formation 2C or the base of formation 2A respectively, and are relatively low in magnitude (0.75 psi/ft]). Most of the overpressured points and almost all of the moderately and highly overpressured points lie off the loading curve, suggesting that a significant component of overpressure has been generated by fluid expansion, load transfer, or vertical transfer.

The vertical stress data from the northern Malay Basin was then used to develop an average lithostat equation: Sv ¼ 0:0064Z 1:1599


where Sv is the vertical stress magnitude (in MPa) and Z is the true vertical depth in meters below sea level (TVD mSS). This equation has an R2 = 0.99 and is accurate to ±1.35 MPa (±196 psi) over all calculated vertical stress magnitudes in the studied depth range of 100 to 3500 m (330– 11,480 ft). This vertical stress equation was used to estimate the corresponding vertical stress magnitude for each WFT- and DST-derived pore pressure and, thus, to calculate the vertical effective

stress magnitude for all 1010 direct pore-pressure measurements. Sonic velocity wireline log data are used as a proxy for porosity in the porosity–vertical effective stress plots (acoustic travel time is inversely related to porosity). The sonic velocity corresponding to each WFT and DST pore-pressure measurement was calculated as the average sonic velocity of all sonic log data in shales within 10 m (33 ft) above and below the WFT depth. In addition to sonic velocity, the average log-derived density, resistivity, and neutron porosity were also determined for each WFT depth. Density, resistivity, and neutron porosity logs are also commonly used to estimate porosity and, hence, can also be used in porosity–vertical effective stress analysis. The Tingay et al.


Figure 7. Average sonic velocity–vertical effective stress values for pore-pressure gradient ranges in the northern Malay Basin. Average velocity-effective stress values (gray to black squares) plot further away from the loading curve (light-gray dots) with increasing overpressure magnitude. The unloading curve defined by increasingly overpressured averaged points suggests that a significant component of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin is generated by fluid expansion, lateral transfer, or vertical transfer mechanisms. 1 MPa = 145.04 psi.

porosity–effective stress analysis was also conducted herein using density, resistivity, and neutron porosity log data and showed essentially the same results as the sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis. However, sonic log data are preferentially used herein because these are less affected by borehole conditions and are more directly relevant to issues related to seismic-based pore-pressure prediction (Tingay et al., 2009a).

Results of Sonic Velocity–Vertical Effective Stress Analysis in the Northern Malay Basin Sonic velocity and vertical effective stress values were obtained for 990 WFT and 20 DST measurements from 30 wells in the northern Malay Basin. Of the 1010 WFTs and DSTs in the study 652

Origin of Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin

area, 725 WFTs and DSTs are normally pressured (0.51 psi/ft]) plot predominantly off the loading curve (small light-gray dots) and away from hydrostatic WFTs from the same formation (large dark-gray dots), indicating that a component of overpressure is generated by fluid expansion in all three formations. WFT = wireline formation test; 1 MPa = 145.04 psi.

expansion. Only five of the 21 overpressured wells contained overpressures that lie predominantly on the loading curve. However, note that these five wells only contain mild overpressures (11.5– 13.2 MPa/km; 0.508–0.583 psi/ft) and, thus, will have only small effective stress anomalies that are unlikely to plot outside of the scatter of normally pressured points, regardless of the overpressuring mechanism. A key result of this study is that all wells containing moderate- to high-magnitude overpressures (>14.0 MPa/km; >0.619 psi/ft) have overpressured points that plot predominantly off the loading curve (Figure 6). Only 19 of the 168 moderately to highly overpressured points plot within the loading curve. Furthermore, the averaged velocity–effective stress data for increasing pore-pressure gradient bins from all overpressured wells show a trend in which higher magnitude pore-pressure gradients plot increasing away from the loading curve (Figure 7). Sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis has also been conducted individually on each of the overpressured 2A, 2B, and 2C formations using all data within the northern Malay Basin. Overpressured points in these formations lie primarily off the loading curve and generally plot distinctly

separate from normally pressured points in the same formation, particularly in the 2A and 2C formations, with mostly only mildly overpressured points (11.5–14.0 MPa/km; 0.508–0.619 psi/ft) plotting on the loading curve (Figure 8). The results of the velocity–effective stress analysis indicate that overpressures in the northern Malay Basin lie predominantly off the loading curve, and that overpressures are entirely or partially generated by fluid expansion or transfer mechanisms. However, it is important to conclusively demonstrate this critical and unusual result and to avoid any possibility of spurious analysis. Wireline formation tests are more accurate in highly permeable formations and may yield erroneous pressure measurements in lower permeability formations, particularly if the measurement is taken when the mud weight is significantly greater than the porefluid pressure. Furthermore, supercharging and other errors are sometimes not labeled on WFT data sheets, and thus, there always remains the possibility that some spurious WFT data may have been unintentionally included in the database compiled herein. Hence, the velocity–effective stress analysis was also repeated herein using only the most reliable overpressured samples (those with Tingay et al.


Figure 9. Sonic velocity–vertical effective stress plot for 49 moderately to highly overpressured (>14.0 MPa/km; >0.62 psi/ ft) WFT measurements with excellent mobilities (>10 mD/cp) in the study area. Although all data used herein are considered reliable, WFTs taken in low-mobility overpressured units have greater potential to result in inaccurate measurements. Velocityeffective stress analysis of only these 49 most reliable overpressured WFTs also indicates that a significant component of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin is generated by fluid expansion or transfer mechanisms. WFT = wireline formation test; 1 MPa = 145.04 psi.

mobilities greater than 10 md/cp) to avoid any WFT pressures that may possibly be spurious. Wireline formation test measurements taken in moderately and highly overpressured formations with good mobilities also plot clearly off the loading curve, confirming that overpressures have been fully or partially generated by fluid expansion or transfer mechanisms in the northern Malay Basin (Figure 9). Note that the object of this stage of the sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis is to include only the most reliable and top-quality WFT data, but that the WFT data with lower mobilities removed for this specific analysis are still likely to be accurate and are considered as reliable herein. 654

Origin of Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin

FLUID EXPANSION OVERPRESSURING MECHANISMS IN THE NORTHERN MALAY BASIN Madon (2007) suggested that disequilibrium compaction is the dominant overpressure generation mechanism in the central (Malaysian) regions of the Malay Basin, based purely on the distribution of overpressure and subsidence modeling. However, one of the most significant results of this study is the well-defined velocity–effective stress distribution of overpressured points plotting predominantly off the loading curve, indicating that fluid expansion mechanisms and/or load transfer or vertical transfer is a significant factor in the generation of overpressures

crossplots to further distinguish between different generation mechanisms and also discuss the likely fluid expansion overpressuring mechanisms acting in the study area based on further analysis into the overpressured measurements and the regional geology of the northern Malay Basin.

Sonic Velocity–Density Crossplot Analysis of Overpressures

Figure 10. Predicted sonic and density signatures associated with pore-pressure gradient increases caused by different overpressure generation mechanisms (adapted from Hoesni, 2004; O’Conner et al., 2011). Overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction are expected to plot on top of the normally pressured sonic-density loading curve. Overpressures associated with clay diagenesis or load transfer are predicted to undergo an increase in density and little change in sonic velocity with increasing overpressure. Sequences that are overpressured through gas generation are predicted to undergo a sharp reduction in velocity, with little or no change in density. Lahann and Swarbrick (2010, 2011) further hypothesize that, if pore-pressure gradients reduce with depth (as occurs in the 2A formation in this study), sonic and density values will return to the original loading curve if overpressures were caused by gas generation, whereas sequences affected by clay diagenesis or load transfer will plot along a new loading curve, possibly subparallel to the original loading curve.

in the northern Malay Basin. Overpressures generated by fluid expansion, load transfer, or vertical transfer mechanisms are thought to be relatively uncommon, or to only provide a minor pore-pressure contribution, in sedimentary basins (Osborne and Swarbrick, 1997; Swarbrick et al., 2002) and are difficult to quantify using conventional porepressure prediction strategies (discussed in further detail in the section on implications; Hermanrud et al., 1998; Tingay et al., 2009a). Unfortunately, velocity–effective stress analysis cannot distinguish between the numerous fluid expansion and vertical transfer mechanisms (Tingay et al., 2007). However, in this section, we use sonic-density

Crossplots of sonic and density log data in overpressured shales have been suggested as a method for distinguishing between different overpressure mechanisms and, particularly, between different fluid expansion or transfer mechanisms (Hoesni, 2004; Lahann and Swarbrick, 2011; O’Conner et al., 2011). Normally pressured sequences, in which rocks are compacting normally with increasing depth, plot as a loading curve on sonic-density crossplots, with both density and sonic velocity increasing with depth. Different overpressure mechanisms are hypothesized to have characteristic signatures on sonic and density logs (Hoesni, 2004) (Figure 10). Shales overpressured by disequilibrium compaction have essentially the same porosity and, thus, density and sonic velocity as normally pressured sequences and, hence, will plot on the loading curve. Overpressures generated by kerogento-gas maturation are suggested to show decreasing sonic velocity with increasing overpressure (because of the effect of gas and reduction in effective stress), but to have essentially little or no density change (Hoesni, 2004) (Figure 10). Shales that are overpressured by clay diagenesis or load transfer are hypothesized to undergo an increase in density with increasing overpressure, but are associated with either minor or no reduction in sonic velocity (Lahann and Swarbrick, 2011; O’Conner et al., 2011) (Figure 10). Sequences containing hybrid overpressures generated by a combination of gas generation and clay digenesis are predicted to display increasing and decreasing sonic velocity with increasing overpressure. Hence, the sonic-density crossplot response to increasing overpressure may help distinguish between different overpressure generation mechanisms. Tingay et al.


Figure 11. Sonic and density crossplots for four wells in the northern Malay Basin. Average sonic and density values for shales have been calculated for each 50-m (164-ft)-depth section along the well. White squares represent normally pressured sequences and define the loading curve (approximate linear trend highlighted by gray dashed arrow). Gray squares represent overpressured sequences within overpressure transition zones, where the pore-pressure gradient is either increasing near the top of formation 2C or decreasing near the base of formation 2A. Black squares are average sonic and density values within the center of the overpressured sequences (from the lower half of formation 2C to the upper parts of formation 2A), in which overpressure gradient remains relatively constant (see Figure 4). Gray solid arrows indicate the approximate path of the average sonic and density values with increasing depth. (A) and (B): examples of moderately and mildly overpressured wells (wells B and D, respectively) that exhibit sonic-density responses consistent with gas generation overpressures (see Figure 10). Sonic velocity decreases sharply, with little change in density, in zones of increasing pore-pressure gradient (upper formation 2C). Sonic and density values both increase along a path that is subparallel to the loading curve within the central overpressured section (black squares), as the sequences have no change in overpressure magnitude in this zone, but are still compacting with depth. Sonic velocities then increase in the negative pressure transition zone at the base of formation 2A, with sonic and density values returning to the original loading curve in the normally pressured formation 1. (C) and (D): examples of highly overpressured wells toward the basin center, which exhibit sonic-density responses consistent with combined disequilibrium compaction and gas generation overpressures. These wells do not reach or contain the negative overpressure transition zone that is observed near the base of formation 2A in all other wells in the study. However, they exhibit decreasing sonic velocities and either decreasing values or no change in density, with increasing pore-pressure gradient (gray squares, located in upper parts of formation 2C). Sonic and density values then return to the original loading curve with increasing depth, despite still being within highly overpressured sequences. The reduction in sonic velocity with increasing overpressure, combined with the overall lack of density change and return to original loading curve with depth, suggests that the high-magnitude overpressures toward the basin center are the result of both gas generation and disequilibrium compaction. 1 MPa = 145.04 psi. 656

Origin of Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin

Sonic-density crossplots can further help to distinguish between different overpressure mechanisms in instances, such as in herein, where there is a negative pore-pressure transition zone. In a negative-pressure transition zone, shales that contain overpressures generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation will have a sonic-density response that returns to the loading curve as overpressure magnitude decreases. However, clay diagenesis is primarily a function of temperature, and thus, with increasing depth and temperature, the diagenetic reactions will not reverse. Hence, shales that have been overpressured by clay diagenesis or load transfer are predicted to have a sonic-density crossplot response that will follow subparallel to the original loading curve with decreasing overpressure and increasing depth (Figure 10). In summary, overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction are expected to plot on the loading curve. Overpressures generated by gas generation are hypothesized to undergo a reduction in sonic velocity, with little change in density, as overpressure increases, and then return to the loading curve as overpressure decreases. Finally, overpressures generated by clay diagenesis or load transfer are expected to be associated with increasing density (and either no change or a slight drop in sonic velocity) and increasing overpressure and then follow a path subparallel to the loading curve with decreasing overpressure.

Results of Sonic Velocity–Density Crossplot Analysis in the Northern Malay Basin Sonic velocity–density crossplot analysis has been conducted on shales in overpressured wells in the northern Malay Basin. Shale sonic velocity and density data for each 50 m (164 ft) of wellbore section have been calculated and crossplotted to filter out natural high-frequency variations in velocity and density that obscure the general trend. Wells containing mildly and moderately overpressured sequences (pore-pressure gradients 0.751 psi/ft) toward the basin center show a slightly different response on the sonic-density crossplots (wells E and F in Figure 11C, D). These wells do not exhibit the negative-pressure transition zone (reduction in pore-pressure gradient) observed near the base of formation 2A in other wells in the study region. On sonic-density crossplots, these wells display a sharp drop in sonic velocity, with either no change or a slight reduction in density, which coincides with the pressure transition zone at the top of formation 2C. Sonic velocity then sharply increases, and density stays constant or slightly increases, returning toward the loading curve, within the highly overpressured formation 2B and 2A sequences (Figure 11). The key finding of the sonic-density crossplot analysis highlights that sonic velocity exhibits a significant change with both increasing and decreasing overpressure magnitude, although there is little or no response in density values (Figure 11). Hence, the sonic-density response to overpressure suggests that gas generation is a key influence on overpressure generation in the northern Malay Basin. Furthermore, the observation that sonic and density values return to the loading curve as pore pressures return to hydrostatic provides very strong evidence against clay diagenesis or load transfer having any significant function in overpressure generation in the northern Malay Basin. Finally, highly overpressured (>17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft) Tingay et al.


sequences sometimes exhibit a reduction in both sonic velocity and density with increasing overpressure and also return back to the loading curve with depth (when still highly overpressured). Both of these responses suggest that disequilibrium compaction, in combination with gas generation, is contributing to overpressure generation in the highly overpressured sequences near the basin center.

Discussion of Fluid Expansion and Transfer Mechanisms with Respect to Regional Geology The sonic-density crossplot analysis indicates that gas generation is a key factor in overpressure generation in the northern Malay Basin. However, there are theoretically four mechanisms that could conceivably generate the fluid expansion or transfer overpressures identified by sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis: clay diagenesis, aquathermal expansion, vertical transfer, and kerogen-togas maturation. In this section, we examine each of these mechanisms in detail and assess the likely function of each with respect to the regional geology and the results of the sonic-density crossplot analysis. Aquathermal expansion (the normal expansion of water as it is heated) must be considered in the northern Malay Basin because of the observed high geothermal gradients of the area, which range from 50 to 75°C/km (197–269°F/mi) (Barker, 1972). However, aquathermal expansion is theoretically only able to generate very mild overpressures (on the order of 0.62 psi/ ft) WFT measurements and their corresponding sampled fluid type. Gas (black squares) is sampled in 84% of all moderately and highly overpressured WFTs, and many of the 24 overpressured water samples (gray diamonds) are taken immediately below a gas column. In comparison, gas is sampled in only 60% of WFTs taken in normally pressured sequences in the study area. Although not definitive evidence, the association of gas with overpressures supports the hypothesis that a component of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin has been generated by gas maturation. WFT = wireline formation test; 1 MPa = 145.04 psi.

net-to-gross (and, thus, permeability to allow fluid flow into reservoirs) and are located immediately below major sealing lithologies (Figure 2). However, the overpressures in the northern Malay Basin are primarily located in the low net-to-gross 2A, 2B, and 2C formations, and significant volumes of overpressured fluids are unlikely to have been vertically transferred, via faults or fractures, into such lowpermeability sequences. Furthermore, the highest magnitude overpressures are observed in the relatively less-faulted basin center, in which there are fewer pathways for overpressured fluid migration into the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations. Indeed, the predominance of overpressures within such lowpermeability sequences, and the consistency in pore-pressure–depth profiles across the basin, sug-

gests that these overpressures are predominantly in situ and have been effectively sealed within, or adjacent to, the sediments in which they have been generated. However, the occurrence of mild overpressures in isolated reservoirs within the upper FM1 and lowermost 2D formations in the moderately overpressured northeastern and southwestern flanks of the northern Malay Basin suggests that some overpressures generated within the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations may have been vertically transferred into sequences immediately below the 2A and above the 2C formations (Figure 4). The occurrence of mild vertically transferred overpressures near the basin flanks correlates with similar overpressuring postulated by Madon (2007) in the central (Malaysian) section of the Malay Basin. Tingay et al.


The sonic-density crossplot analysis suggests that the mechanism most likely to have created overpressures in the northern Malay Basin is the generation of natural gas (methane). The catagenesis of kerogen or oil into gas within a sealed source rock is associated with a large increase in fluid volume that can, theoretically, generate lithostatic magnitude overpressures (Meissner, 1978; Ungerer et al., 1983; Barker, 1990; Osborne and Swarbrick, 1997). The 2A, 2B, and 2C formations are typically at temperatures of 110–190°C and contain many coal and organic-rich units that are the primary source of hydrocarbons in the region. Furthermore, the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations typically have low net-to-gross and low permeability and, thus, act as an effective and stratigraphically localized pressure seal. Hence, the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations are suitable environments for overpressure development by gas generation. In addition, most of the overpressured WFT and DST measurements in the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations sampled gas. Gas is recorded as being sampled in 83% of all overpressured WFTs and DSTs (>11.5 MPa/km; >0.508 psi/ft), and 84% of WFTs sampled gas in moderately to highly overpressured sequences (>14.0 MPa/km; >0.619 psi/ft; Figure 12). The association of gas with overpressures is significantly greater than in normally pressured sequences. Gas is observed in 60% of WFT and DST samples in normally pressured sequences basinwide and in 66% of normally pressured sequences of the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations. Furthermore, almost all of the WFTs and DSTs that sampled water or oil in overpressured sequences were taken in the water and oil leg immediately below a gas column and, thus, are in direct pressure communication with gas. The observation that almost all of the overpressures in the northern Malay Basin are directly associated with the presence of gas is critical because the absence of such an association would be conclusive evidence against overpressures being formed by gas generation. However, the statistically high association of gas with overpressure in the region does not, by itself, provide evidence for the generation of overpressures by kerogen-to-gas maturation. The proper investigation of the like660

Origin of Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin

lihood of overpressuring caused by gas generation requires a detailed knowledge of the type, volume, and maturation of source rock material in the 2A, 2B, and 2C sequences that was not possible with the data available for this study. However, in our opinion, a significant component of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin is formed by gas generation given the evidence that • fluid expansion overpressuring is occurring in the northern Malay Basin; • sonic-density crossplots reveal a response in overpressured zones consistent with gas generation; • a stratigraphically controlled distribution of overpressures exists within the regional source sequences; • the overpressures show a strong association of gas; and • the regional geology and geothermal gradient is favorable for gas generation overpressures and mostly unsuitable for other fluid expansion or transfer mechanisms. As such, the pore-pressure data presented herein constitute the most comprehensive in-situ data set of overpressures formed through gas generation known to us and possibly provides the best direct in-situ evidence to date that significant and basinwide overpressures can be generated by the catagenesis of kerogen and oil into gas.

ROLE OF DISEQUILIBRIUM OVERPRESSURE IN THE NORTHERN MALAY BASIN The sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis highlights the presence of overpressures generated by a fluid expansion mechanism in the northern Malay Basin, most likely the generation of gas within the effectively sealed 2A, 2B, and 2C formations. However, most of the moderate- and highmagnitude overpressures observed in sedimentary basins are generated by disequilibrium compaction, whereas fluid expansion mechanisms are typically considered to occur rarely, be highly localized, and have a mostly unproven potential for generating

Figure 13. (A) Pore-pressure–depth plot for well E located toward the center of the basin. Note that overpressures commence near the base of formation 2D, reach approximately 18.0 MPa/km (0.8 psi/ft) near the middle of formation 2C, and maintain this gradient until the base of formation 2A (no negative pressure transition zone is observed in formation 2A). (B) Observed (light-gray dots) versus predicted normal (hydrostatic; black line) sonic transit time values for well E. The highly overpressured 2A to 2C formations are associated with a moderate sonic transit time anomaly, further indicating that a component of overpressure in these formations is generated by disequilibrium compaction (in addition to the kerogen-to-gas overpressuring identified by the velocity-effective stress analysis and the sonicdensity crossplot analysis; see Figure 11C). TVD (mss) = true vertical depth (meters subsea).

significant or basinwide overpressures (Osborne and Swarbrick, 1997). Furthermore, the primary conditions necessary for overpressure generation by fluid expansion, most notably the required existence of an extremely effective seal, are also ideal for the generation of overpressures by disequilibrium compaction (Neuzil, 1995; Osborne and Swarbrick, 1997). Indeed, once a seal of sufficient quality has been developed to allow the formation of overpressures by fluid expansion, any increase in stress applied to the sealed sequences (e.g., burial or tectonic loading) will also generate overpressure by disequilibrium compaction. Thus, Neuzil (1995) and Osborne and Swarbrick (1997) predicted that overpressures generated by fluid expansion are unlikely to occur in isolation and will also include some component of overpressure gen-

erated through disequilibrium compaction. Indeed, Osborne and Swarbrick (1997) suggest that overpressures commonly associated with gas generation may, in fact, be generated by disequilibrium compaction because the increase in porosity and destruction of kerogen in the framework (associated with kerogen turning into gas) means that the matrix becomes unable to fully support the overlying load. Finally, the generation of highmagnitude (>17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft) overpressures solely by kerogen-to-gas maturation, although theoretically possible, is extremely implausible as higher pore pressures inhibit gas generation, and such high magnitudes would require both extremely large quantities of source material and the unlikely maintenance of a nearly perfect pressure seal during and after gas generation. Hence, Tingay et al.


Figure 14. Schematic diagram of the method used herein to estimate the approximate contribution of overpressure generated by kerogen-to-gas generation. The approximate percentage of overpressure caused by kerogen-to-gas maturation is estimated by the ratio of the distance a pore-pressure point plots from the loading curve (LC) (in terms of vertical effective stress) and the actual magnitude of overpressure (pore pressure minus hydrostatic pressure). This method provides only an approximate general estimate and will likely be a slight underestimate of the contribution of kerogen-to-gas maturation overpressuring because it does not consider the potential reduction in sonic velocity resulting from fluid expansion overpressuring (e.g., Figure 7). This analysis was conducted for all overpressured data and suggests that the overall magnitude of overpressure caused by kerogen-to-gas generation increases toward the basin center, but that the relative percentage contribution of gas generation overpressuring decreases toward the basin center (see overpressure generation model in Figure 15).

this section investigates the potential for disequilibrium compaction to have generated a component of the overpressures in the northern Malay Basin. Indeed, disequilibrium compaction has previously been suggested as the primary mechanism for overpressure generation in the central (Malaysian) section of the Malay Basin (Madon, 2007). Strong evidence exists that disequilibrium compaction is also a significant factor in generating overpressure in the northern Malay Basin, in addition to the previously discussed theoretical constraints and the hypothesis suggesting that kerogen-to-gas overpressures are unlikely to occur in isolation. Overpressured sequences in many moderately to highly overpressured wells in the study area are associated with abnormally high sonic transit times (Figure 13). Sonic transit times of as much as 40% less than expected are observed in the most highly 662

Origin of Overpressure in the Northern Malay Basin

overpressured 2A, 2B, and 2C formations in wells located near the basin center (e.g., well E in Figure 13), whereas smaller sonic transit time anomalies are observed in wells containing moderately overpressured sequences. The higher transit times (lower sonic velocities) observed in overpressured sequences suggest that these formations are undercompacted (have abnormally high porosities for a given depth), and this is a classic indicator of overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction (Mouchet and Mitchell, 1989). The sonic velocity–density crossplot analysis also suggested that overpressures are, in part, generated by disequilibrium compaction, particularly in the highly overpressured sequences located toward the basin center (wells E and F in Figure 11). These highly overpressured wells displayed reduced densities with increasing overpressure and/or highly overpressured sequences that plot on or close to the loading curve, both of which are evidence for overpressures being generated by disequilibrium compaction. The sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis provides further evidence that disequilibrium compaction contributes some component of the overpressure observed in the northern Malay Basin. Although most of the moderately to highly overpressured WFTs (>14.0 MPa/km; 0.619psi/ ft) have sonic velocities and vertical effective stress values that plot off the loading curve, some overpressured measurements (mostly near the basin center) have velocities and effectives stress values that plot on the loading curve, indicating overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction. Furthermore, the distance (in terms of effective stress) that overpressured measurements lie off (to the left) the loading curve provides an approximate indication of the relative amount of fluid expansion overpressure in the region (described in detail in the following section). Overpressures in the northern Malay Basin lie, on average, 6.4 MPa (928 psi) off the loading curve, yet these same measurements are, on average, overpressured by 11.66 MPa (1691 psi). Hence, the sonic velocity– vertical effective stress analysis confirms that fluid expansion alone cannot provide all of the overpressure observed in the northern Malay Basin.

AMOUNT OF OVERPRESSURE GENERATED BY GAS GENERATION AND DISEQUILIBRIUM COMPACTION The pore-pressure database compiled herein offers an opportunity to estimate the approximate magnitude of overpressure generated by gas generation from real in-situ data (as opposed to numerical or laboratory models). We suggest herein that the ratio between the measured amount of overpressure (pore-fluid pressure minus hydrostatic pressure) and the distance (in terms of effective stress) that overpressured measurements lie off (to the left) the loading curve provides an approximate estimate of the relative component of overpressure developed by the gas generation mechanism (Figure 14). Using the basinwide averages from the previous section, gas generation appears to account for approximately 60% of overpressure magnitude (i.e., 60% of the pressure in excess of the hydrostatic gradient) in the northern Malay Basin, but the relative proportion of overpressure caused by gas generation is different for each overpressured well and ranges from 35 to 85% across the study area. The component of overpressure generated by kerogen-to-gas catagenesis reduces from 60 to 85% in mildly overpressured sequences (11.5–14.0 MPa/ km; 0.508–0.619 psi/ft) to 50 to 65% in moderate overpressures (14.0–17.0 MPa/km; 0.619–0.751 psi/ ft) and only 35 to 55% in high-magnitude overpressure (>17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft). However, this analysis also indicates that overpressures generated by fluid expansion in the northern Malay Basin appear to provide an average of approximately 3.6 ± 1.8 MPa/km (0.159 ± 0.079 psi/ft) of overpressure (in excess of the hydrostatic gradient) in moderate-magnitude overpressures (>14.0 MPa/ km; >0.619 psi/ft) and approximately 4.0 ± 1.4 MPa/ km (0.177 ± 0.062 psi/ft) in highly overpressured sequences (>17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft). Hence, a key observation of this analysis is that the relative proportion of gas generation overpressures reduces toward the basin center, but that the absolute magnitude of kerogen-to-gas generation overpressures slightly increases toward the basin center. This basic analysis suggests that gas generation overpressures are likely to only contribute between

1.8 and 5.4 MPa/km (0.79 and 0.239 psi/ft) of the observed overpressures in the northern Malay Basin, with the remainder of overpressure generated by disequilibrium compaction (potentially underestimated by as much as 0.5–2.0 MPa/km [0.02– 0.09 psi/ft]). Thus, if the northern Malay Basin is assumed as being a representative example of the potential for basinwide overpressure generation by gas generation, the analysis herein suggests that gas generation, if acting in isolation, is only able to generate pore-pressure gradients of up to 15.3 MPa/ km (0.676 psi/ft) and not the lithostatic magnitude pore pressures hypothesized by laboratory analysis and numerical modeling. A key issue with this approach is that it assumes that overpressure generated by fluid expansion has negligible influence on rock sonic velocity and, thus, that the horizontal distance that a point plots away from the loading curve equals the amount of overpressure generated by fluid expansion (Figure 14). However, gas is well known to cause a reduction in sonic velocity (gas effect), and this is exhibited in the sonic-density crossplot analysis (Figure 11). Furthermore, from the analysis of overpressured sequences in Brunei and Norway, a slight but detectable reduction in the sonic velocity during fluid expansion or transfer overpressure has been suggested because of the reduction of effective stress and grain-grain contacts and the slight elastic component of compaction (compliant pore space or the opening of microcracks; Hermanrud et al., 1998; Tingay et al., 2009a). Indeed, the average sonic velocity–effective stress analysis conducted herein also indicates that sonic velocity decreases with increasing overpressure (Figure 7). We could not determine in this study how much of the reduction in sonic velocity observed in overpressured zones is the result purely of gas effect on the sonic log and how much may be the result of reduction in effective stress at grain contacts or microfracture opening. Hence, note that the magnitude of fluid expansion overpressure estimated herein (suggested by the distance of points that lie off the loading curve) will likely be a lower bound to the actual amount of overpressure created by fluid expansion. The degree that Tingay et al.


Figure 15. Schematic model for overpressure (OP) generation and transfer across the northern Malay Basin. Pore pressures are hydrostatic in the northwest end of the basin. Overpressures are primarily observed in the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations, with maximum porepressure gradients increasing toward the basin center (southeast). The amount of overpressure generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation increases toward the basin center with increasing source rock content, decreased net-to-gross and source material being subjected to deeper and hotter conditions. However, the reduction in net-to-gross and increasing burial rates toward the basin center also promote the generation of overpressure by disequilibrium compaction. Hence, the relative proportion of overpressure generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation decreases toward the basin center, although the absolute magnitude of these overpressures increases. Minor overpressures are also locally observed in the lowermost section of formation 2D and uppermost sequences of formation 1, particularly in the southwest and northeast flanks of the northern Malay Basin. These minor overpressures in formations 2D and 1 are suggested to be the result of vertical transfer of pore pressures from formations 2C and 2A, respectively.

the magnitude and proportion of overpressure generated by fluid expansion is underestimated is dependent on the influence of fluid expansion overpressure (acting in isolation) on the sonic velocity. A worst case sensitivity analysis, assuming no gas effect on the sonic log (an unlikely scenario in gas-generated overpressures) and an exaggerated influence of fluid expansion overpressure on sonic velocities, indicates that this method may underestimate the magnitude of overpressure generated by fluid expansion by between 0.5 and 2.0 MPa/ km (0.02 and 0.09 psi/ft) and the percentage component of fluid expansion overpressure by as 664

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much as 16 to 25% (potential error increasing in greater magnitude overpressures). However, even such an exaggerated overestimate of the influence of fluid expansion overpressure on the sonic velocity fails to account for the discrepancy between observed overpressure magnitude and the distance the points plot off the loading curve. Hence, the sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis provides further evidence that fluid expansion alone cannot provide all of the overpressure observed in the northern Malay Basin, and the results of this analysis are used in the next section to develop a model for overpressure generation in the northern Malay Basin.

MODEL FOR OVERPRESSURE GENERATION IN THE NORTHERN MALAY BASIN The analysis of overpressure distribution and sonic velocity–vertical effective stress data undertaken herein, coupled with the regional geology, suggests that overpressures in the northern Malay Basin are the result of varying amounts of both gas generation and disequilibrium compaction. This allows the development of a schematic model for overpressure generation in the northern Malay Basin that can be used as a foundation for future porepressure prediction in the region, in addition to other exploration and production implications that are discussed in subsequent sections. The velocity–effective stress analysis described previously suggests that kerogen-to-gas overpressures contribute 1.8 to 5.4 MPa/km (0.079–0.239 psi/ft) of overpressure (increasing in highly overpressured sequences) or an average of 60% of the observed overpressure magnitude (decreasing in highly overpressured sequences toward the basin center). This analysis can then be combined with the regional distribution of overpressures—that highly overpressured sequences (>17.0 MPa/km; >0.751 psi/ft) occur primarily toward the basin center, moderate overpressures (14.0–17.0 MPa/km; 0.619–0.751 psi/ft) occur along the basin flanks, and mild overpressures (11.5–14.0 MPa/km; 0.508– 0.619 psi/ft) occur toward the northwestern end of the basin (Figure 15). Gas generation can explain all or most of the observed mild to moderate overpressures near the basin flanks (though minor sonic velocity anomalies observed in moderately overpressured sequences indicate a component of disequilibrium compaction overpressure). In contrast, overpressuring appears to be possibly dominated by disequilibrium compaction in the highly overpressured sequences toward the basin a significant amount [potentially half] of overpressure created by gas generation). This schematic model of mild to moderate overpressures at the basin flanks generated primarily by kerogen-to-gas maturation, but with the proportion of disequilibrium compaction overpressure increasing (and eventually becoming dominant) toward the highly overpressured basin cen-

ter, is consistent with the schematic geology of the region (Figure 15). The 2A, 2B, and 2C formations near the basin flanks are relatively thinner and have not been as deeply and as rapidly buried as the same sequences in the basin center. These conditions promote a relatively greater proportion of gas generation overpressuring at the basin flanks, with only a minor component of disequilibrium compaction. However, the conditions toward the basin center become increasingly favorable for overpressure generation by disequilibrium compaction (faster deposition rates; deeper burial; and finer, more distal, sediments), although the magnitude of overpressure created by gas generation increases only slightly toward the basin center (deeper formation 2A, 2B, and 2C sequences and, thus, higher temperatures, but possibly slightly lower amounts of hydrocarbon source material). Hence, the overpressures observed in the basin center, and into the Malaysian section of the basin, are likely to be predominantly generated by disequilibrium compaction, but still with a significant component of overpressure created by gas generation (e.g., approximately 45–65% of overpressure generated by disequilibrium compaction, with 35–55% generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation; Figure 15).

EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION IMPLICATIONS OF OVERPRESSURE DISTRIBUTION AND ORIGIN The overpressure distribution and generation model developed in this study has numerous implications for exploration and production in the northern Malay Basin, and that can also be applied to other regions in which gas generation overpressuring is suspected to occur. This section discusses the key implications of the distribution and origin of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin for porepressure prediction, fluid flow, hydrocarbon migration, and seal retention capacity. Implications for Pore-Pressure Prediction Pore-pressure prediction techniques use the petrophysical response of overpressured sequences Tingay et al.


to quantify pore-pressure magnitude, with the primary aim being to estimate pore pressure before drilling from variations in seismic processing velocities, or in real time from measurement-whiledrilling (MWD) data (typically sonic velocity or resistivity; Sayers et al., 2002). Developing a reliable pore-pressure prediction strategy is a detailed and involved process that is outside the scope of this study. However, the overpressure generation model developed herein provides the essential foundations for developing a pore-pressure prediction strategy, the key aspects of which are described herein. Different overpressure generation mechanisms have different effects on rock petrophysical properties (Mouchet and Mitchell, 1989; Hermanrud et al., 1998; Tingay et al., 2009a). However, almost all currently used pore-pressure prediction techniques are focused on predicting the magnitude of overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction (Sayers et al., 2002). This is primarily because disequilibrium compaction accounts for most of the overpressures observed in sedimentary basins, but also because disequilibrium compaction overpressures are normally associated with an easily detectable porosity anomaly. Indeed, most pore-pressure prediction techniques, such as the commonly used Eaton (1972) method, estimate pore pressure from the porosity anomaly associated with disequilibrium compaction overpressures and not from any direct petrophysical response of the overpressure itself (termed porosity-based prediction methods; Tingay et al., 2009a). However, fluid expansion or transfer overpressures, such as those generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation in the northern Malay Basin, are not associated with a significant porosity anomaly and will not be correctly estimated from porosity-based prediction methods (Bowers, 1994; Tingay et al., 2009a). Hence, the variable combination of overpressures generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation and disequilibrium compaction observed in the study region requires pore-pressure prediction strategies that do not rely solely on relative estimates of sediment porosity. The lack of a porosity anomaly associated with gas generation overpressures suggests that pore 666

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pressures will be underestimated by typical porositybased prediction methods. This has been tested herein by conducting basic analysis of the pore pressures likely to be predicted for all overpressured WFT measurements using the standard Eaton (1972) method and sonic log velocities. The Eaton (1972) method, while generally not the most reliable pore-pressure prediction method, is used herein simply because it is well known and also easily calibrated with empirical data for application in specific regions or for variable overpressure generation mechanisms (van Ruth et al., 2004; Tingay et al., 2009a). Furthermore, the purpose of this section is not to conduct pore-pressure prediction, but instead to highlight the implications and potential difficulties for pore-pressure prediction in regions containing gas generation overpressures (such as shale gas regions). The Eaton (1972) method estimates pore pressure from the ratio of acoustic travel time expected in normally pressured (and normally compacted) sediments versus the observed acoustic travel time. Pore pressure (Pp) is estimated using the equation: P p ¼ s v ðs v P h ÞðDt norm =DtÞx


where x is an exponent (typically equal to 3.0), Ph is hydrostatic pore pressure, Dtnorm is the acoustic travel time from the normal compaction trend at the depth of investigation, sv is vertical stress, and Dt is the observed acoustic travel time from the sonic log (Eaton, 1972). The sonic log velocity data from normally pressured WFTs determined herein were used to roughly estimate the following equation for acoustic travel time for normally pressured sequences (Dtnorm): Dt norm ¼ 4159:5Z 0:5086 ; R2 ¼ 0:89


where Dtnorm is in microseconds per foot and Z is the true vertical depth in meters below sea level. The pore pressure, vertical stress, and sonic velocity data collected for the sonic velocity–vertical effective stress analysis, combined the predicted pore pressure from equations 2 and 3, can then be used to calculate the error in predicted pore pressure for

each overpressured WFT measurement using the conventional Eaton (1972) method. These same data can also be used to determine the perfect Eaton exponent required to accurately predict each individual WFT measurement (Tingay et al., 2009a). An Eaton exponent (x) of 3.0 is typically used, and has been shown to work well, in regions where overpressures are generated by disequilibrium compaction and, thus, where there is a large porosity anomaly associated with overpressures (Eaton, 1972; Mouchet and Mitchell, 1989; van Ruth et al., 2004; Tingay et al., 2009a). However, pore-pressure gradients predicted using an Eaton exponent of 3.0 in overpressured sequences (>11.5 MPa/km; 0.508 psi/ft) of the northern Malay Basin are, on average, 2.3 ±1.5 MPa/km (0.102 ± 0.066 psi/ft) lower than the actual observed pore-pressure gradients. This underestimation is greater in sequences containing higher overpressures, with pore-pressure gradients in moderately and highly overpressured sequences (>14.0 MPa/ km; >0.619 psi/ft) underestimated by an average of 2.8 ± 1.4 MPa/km (0.124 ± 0.062 psi/ft) when a typical Eaton exponent of 3.0 is used. Furthermore, an extremely large variation in the calculated perfect Eaton exponents exists that would exactly predict the pore pressure for each individual WFT measurement. Calculated perfect Eaton exponent values range from –5 to 50, with an average exponent (x) value of 7.8 ± 4.8. The wide variation in calculated perfect Eaton exponents and the large standard deviation in perfect Eaton exponent values are a consequence of the multiple overpressure generation mechanisms in the northern Malay Basin and highlight the immense challenges in reliable pore-pressure prediction in the region. The significant component of overpressure generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation does not cause a noticeable porosity anomaly and, thus, is only associated with a minor and highly variable petrophysical response. Furthermore, the absence of a significant porosity anomaly requires a high Eaton exponent to amplify the typically smaller sonic velocity response associated with the gas generation overpressures. However, fluid expansion or vertical expansion overpressures may

cause a minor but detectable sonic velocity and resistivity anomaly because of the reduction of effective stress at grain-to-grain contacts in overpressured sequences (Hermanrud et al., 1998; Bowers and Katsube, 2002; van Ruth et al., 2004; Tingay et al., 2009a). Hence, the potential exists for developing a pore-pressure prediction strategy for the northern Malay Basin based on the overpressure model developed herein. Although a preliminary analysis of pore-pressure prediction from seismic velocities based on these results has been successful, a significant amount of further and more detailed analysis is still required (Limp*rnpipat et al., 2012).

Implications for Fluid Flow and Hydrocarbon Migration Overpressure is a transitory hydrodynamic phenomenon that can only exist in a sealed volume and, because no natural seal is perfect, will dissipate over time (Neuzil, 1995; Lee and Deming, 2002). The generation of overpressure by kerogen-to-gas maturation is also linked to primary migration of hydrocarbons away from the source rock (England et al., 1987; Mantaring et al., 1994). Hence, the occurrence and distribution of present-day overpressure provides a snapshot of how overpressures, and thus fluids, migrate through the petroleum system (Tingay et al., 2009a). Therefore, the overpressure generation model and overpressure distribution described herein yields insights into hydrocarbon migration and fluid flow in the northern Malay Basin. This is particularly important for extending the life of this relatively mature province through exploration away from the basin flanks and into the basin center. The observation that overpressure in the northern Malay Basin is mostly confined to the low netto-gross 2A, 2B, and 2C formations suggests that these overpressures are generated within these formations, and that overpressured fluids have remained mostly in situ. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized herein that a large component of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin has been generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation, and the Tingay et al.


overwhelming majority of overpressured samples contain gas. The combination of these observations suggests that the moderately and highly overpressured 2A, 2B, and 2C formations toward the basin center may thus host significant volumes of gas within the low-permeability sequences and intraformational channels and bars. Hence, the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations may make good exploration targets, providing that significant volumes of isolated reservoir exist within these sequences, or that they can be effectively fracture stimulated. Furthermore, the significant component of overpressure generated by disequilibrium compaction in the highly overpressured regions of the northern Malay Basin is associated with anomalously high porosities that may potentially slightly enhance reservoir quality within these sequences. It therefore follows that the occurrence of moderate- and high-magnitude overpressures in the basin center suggests that significant volumes of hydrocarbons may not have migrated out of the 2A, 2B, and 2C source sequences, and thus, that shallower formations (e.g., 2D and 2E) may not have been significantly charged. In contrast, the lack of significant overpressures in the northwest of the study area may indicate that large quantities of gas have escaped from the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations and migrated into neighboring sequences. The observation that mild (and predominantly gas-charged) overpressures are observed in sequences immediately below the 2A and above the 2C formations, particularly near the basin center, offers some validation of the hypothesis herein that significant quantities of gas may not have migrated away from moderately to highly overpressured zones in the southeast of the study region. If correct, the model proposed herein for the generation and distribution of overpressure in the northern Malay Basin would suggest targeting structurally defined plays above or below the 2A, 2B, or 2C sequences in the normally pressured northwestern part of the study area, while targeting more stratigraphically controlled plays within the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations in the deeper parts of the basin (and a mixture of structural and stratigraphic plays in the moderately overpressured basin flanks). 668

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Implications of Gas Generation Overpressures for Retention Capacity and Seal Breach Seal breach can result from initiating tensile or shear fracturing of the cap rock or via the reactivation of pre-existing faults (Finkbeiner et al., 1997; Jones and Hillis, 2003; Tingay et al., 2009b). Fault and fracture reactivation is controlled by the effective stress (stress minus pore pressure), and thus, overpressures, which reduce the effective stress, drive the system toward shear or tensile failure and are associated with a greater risk of seal breach (Sibson, 1996; Hillis, 2001; Tingay et al., 2009b). Hence, overpressured sequences are commonly considered as poor targets for hydrocarbon exploration because of the increased risk of top or fault seal breach (Gaarenstroom et al., 1993). Furthermore, because overpressured sequences are closer to brittle failure and seal breach, overpressures are also thought to reduce the maximum hydrocarbon column height that can be trapped by a seal (Gaarenstroom et al., 1993). The risks of targeting overpressured reservoirs have been demonstrated in the central North Sea, where most of the dry wells or uncommercial accumulations are found in overpressured reservoirs that have low retention capacities (minimum horizontal stress minus pore pressure; Gaarenstroom et al., 1993). However, the common perception that overpressured reservoirs make for poor exploration targets is founded on overpressures being generated by disequilibrium compaction and, thus, may not be applicable in the northern Malay Basin, or in other basins in which gas generation overpressures are significant. The observation in the central North Sea that overpressured sequences only trap small hydrocarbon columns assumes that overpressuring of water-saturated formations occurs primarily because of disequilibrium compaction before hydrocarbon generation. Hence, the theory that reservoirs with low retention capacities are high-risk exploration targets assumes that these reservoirs are already close to fracturing and seal breach before hydrocarbons migrate into the system. However, it is hypothesized herein that a significant proportion of the overpressure in the northern

Malay Basin is generated by kerogen-to-gas maturation, and that overpressures (and associated overpressured gas-charged fluids) remain primarily sealed within the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations. The existence of such stratigraphically bound overpressures indicates that fluids (primarily gas) are effectively sealed within the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations in which the gases were generated. Under this model, the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations in the basin center have the highest overpressures and, thus, lowest retention capacities, but are also, potentially, the most gas-charged formations and most prospective exploration targets in the basin center. Hence, we suggest that the concept of low retention capacities making riskier exploration targets needs to be refined, and that formations with lower retention capacities may actually be the most prospective exploration targets in regions in which a significant component of overpressuring has occurred through gas generation. This concept may be particularly applicable to shale gas basins, in which gas generation overpressures may aid in production rates both through pressure drive and potential fracturing induced by high pressures.

SUMMARY The results of this study provide critical insights into the nature and origin of overpressures in the northern Malay Basin. The combination of an extensive and high-quality pore-pressure database combined with sonic velocity–vertical effective stress and velocity-density crossplot analysis indicates that a significant component of overpressuring in the 2A, 2B, and 2C formations of the northern Malay Basin are the result of fluid expansion, most likely gas generation through kerogen catagenesis or oil cracking. This represents some of the best supporting evidence to date for the old and commonly assumed theory that gas generation can cause significant basinwide overpressures. However, the highly effective seal required for gas generation overpressuring (or any fluid expansion or transfer mechanism) results in conditions also being favorable for overpressure generation by disequilibrium compaction, and we

observe that the gas generation overpressures in the study area do not exist in isolation and occur coincidently with overpressure generated by disequilibrium compaction. We estimate that gas generation contributes 1.8 to 5.4 MPa/km (0.079–0.239 psi/ft) of pore pressure in excess of the hydrostatic pressure (increasing in highly overpressured sequences toward the basin center), or an average of approximately 60% of the observed overpressure in the northern Malay Basin (decreasing in highly overpressured sequences). Thus, we propose that gas generation, acting in isolation, will likely generate moderate, instead of extremely high-magnitude, basinwide overpressures. However, this does not preclude gas generation from causing lithostatic overpressures in highly localized source rock sequences. Furthermore, the combination of gas generation and disequilibrium overpressures is able to generate high-magnitude overpressures that represent a significant hazard to drilling operations. The component of overpressure resulting from gas generation is not associated with a significant porosity anomaly detectable from seismic velocities, and thus, pore pressure will be significantly underestimated in the northern Malay Basin by most conventional prediction methods. This example of basinwide gas generation overpressuring indicates that a revaluation of the function of overpressures in developing exploration strategies and prospect risking is required. The main play type considered in the northern Malay Basin is to target fault-bound reservoirs in the higher net-to-gross sequences (formations 2E, 2D, and FM1) that are located immediately below major sealing lithologies (formations 2A and FM3) near the basin flanks. The analysis conducted herein suggests that hydrocarbons, and the bulk of any associated gas generation overpressures, appear to have mostly migrated out of the 2A, 2B, and 2C source formations in the basin flanks, and thus, this has been a highly successful exploration strategy to date. However, exploration focus is moving toward the basin center, in which the overpressures suggest that a different and less conventional play concept may be required. The 2A, 2B, and 2C source formations appear to be much more effective Tingay et al.


seals toward the center of the basin, which, coupled with a comparatively lower density of faulting, suggests that much of the generated hydrocarbons (and associated overpressures) remain trapped within these lower net-to-gross formations. Thus, an exploration strategy for the center of the northern Malay Basin, or any region containing significant gas generation overpressures, may need to target stratigraphic traps (e.g., sealed channel complexes or bars) or permeability sweet spots within the highly overpressured source rock sequences. Furthermore, the common suggestion that highly overpressured reservoirs (low retention capacities) make poor exploration targets, caused by their higher likelihood of seal breach and the inability to maintain significant hydrocarbon columns, is not applicable if overpressures primarily result from gas generation. Indeed, prospects having lower retention capacities may actually be more favorable exploration targets in regions containing significant amounts of gas generation overpressure.

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el of Williston Basin hydrocarbon systems: AAPG Bulletin, v. 80, p. 265–291. Colton-Bradley, V. A. C., 1987, Role of pressure in smectite dehydration—Effects on geopressure and smectite-toillite transition: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, p. 1414–1427. Deming, D., 1994, Factors necessary to define a pressure seal: AAPG Bulletin, v. 78, p. 1005–1009. Eaton, B. A., 1972, Graphical method predicts geopressures worldwide: World Oil, v. 182, p. 51–56. England, W. A., A. S. Mackenzie, D. M. Mann, and T. M. Quigley, 1987, The movement and entrapment of petroleum fluids in the subsurface: Journal of the Geological Society (London), v. 144, p. 327–347, doi:10.1144 /gsjgs.144.2.0327. Fall, A., P. Eichhubl, S. P. Cumella, R. J. Bodnar, S. E. Laubach, and S. P. Becker, 2012, Testing the basin-centered gas accumulation model using fluid-inclusion observations: Southern Piceance Basin, Colorado: AAPG Bulletin, v. 96, p. 2297–2318. Finkbeiner, T., C. A. Barton, and M. D. Zoback, 1997, Relationships among in-situ stress, fractures and faults, and fluid flow: Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin, California: AAPG Bulletin, v. 81, p. 1975–1999. Freed, R. L., and D. R. Peacor, 1989, Geopressured shale and sealing effect of smectite-to-illite transition: AAPG Bulletin, v. 73, p. 1223–1232. Gaarenstroom, L., R. A. J. Tromp, M. C. de Jong, and A. M. Brandenburg, 1993, Overpressures in the central North Sea: Implications for trap integrity and drilling safety, in J. R. Parker, ed., Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe: Proceedings of the 4th Conference: Geological Society of London, Petroleum Geology Conference Series 4, p. 1305–1313, doi:10.1144/0041305. Grauls, D. J., and J. M. Baleix, 1994, Role of overpressures and in situ stresses in fault-controlled hydrocarbon migration: A case study: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 11, p. 734–742, doi:10.1016/0264-8172(94)90026-4. Gutierrez, M. A., N. R. Braunsdorf, and B. A. Couzens, 2006, Calibration and ranking of pore-pressure prediction models: The Leading Edge, v. 25, p. 1516–1523, doi:10.1190 /1.2405337. Hall, R., and C. K. Morley, 2004, Sundaland basins, in P. Clift, P. Wang, W. Kuhnt, and D. E. Hayes, eds., Continentocean interactions within the east Asian marginal seas: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 149, p. 55–85. Hedberg, H. D., 1974, Relation of methane generation to undercompacted shales, shale diapirs, and mud volcanoes: AAPG Bulletin, v. 58, p. 661–673. Hedberg, H. D., 1980, Methane generation and petroleum migration, in W. H. Roberts III and R. J. Cordell, eds., Problems of petroleum migration: AAPG Studies in Geology 10, p. 179–206. Hermanrud, C., L. Wensaas, G. M. G. Teige, E. Vik, H. M. N. Bolas, and S. Hansen, 1998, Shale porosities from well logs on Haltenbanken (offshore mid-Norway) show no influence of overpressuring, in B. E. Law, G. F. Ulmishek, and V. I. Slavin, eds., Abnormal pressures in hydrocarbon environments: AAPG Memoir 70, p. 65–85. Hillis, R. R., 2001, Coupled changes in pore pressure and

stress in oil fields and sedimentary basins: Petroleum Geoscience, v. 7, p. 419–425. Hoesni, J., 2004, Origins of overpressure in the Malay Basin and its influence on petroleum systems: PhD thesis, University of Durham, Durham, United Kingdom, 268 p. Jardine, E., 1997, Dual petroleum systems governing the prolific Pattani Basin , offshore Thailand: Proceedings of the International Conference on Stratigraphy and Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, August 19–24, 1997, p. 525–534. Jones, R. M., and R. R. Hillis, 2003, An integrated, quantitative approach to assessing fault-seal risk: AAPG Bulletin, v. 87, p. 189–215. Lahann, R. W., 2002, Impact of smectite diagenesis on compaction modeling and compaction equilibrium, in A. R. Huffman and G. L. Bowers, eds., Pressure regimes in sedimentary basins and their prediction: AAPG Memoir 76, p. 61–72. Lahann, R. W., and R. E. Swarbrick, 2010, Kaolinite diagenesis: A previously unrecognized cause of fluid overpressure?: Proceedings of the AAPG Geoscience Technology Workshop on Pore Pressure and Related Issues—Special Focus: Singapore, October 28–29, 2010, p. 6. Lahann, R. W., and R. E. Swarbrick, 2011, Overpressure generation by load transfer following shale framework weakening due to smectite diagenesis: Geofluids, v. 11, p. 362– 375, doi:10.1111/j.1468-8123.2011.00350.x. Lash, G. G., and T. Engelder, 2005, An analysis of horizontal microcracking during catagenesis: Example from the Catskill delta complex: AAPG Bulletin, v. 89, p. 1433– 1449, doi:10.1306/05250504141. Law, B. E., and C. W. Spencer, 1998, Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments, in B. E. Law, G. F. Ulmishek, and V. I. Slavin, eds., Abnormal pressures in hydrocarbon environments: AAPG Memoir 70, p. 1–11. Lee, Y., and D. Deming, 2002, Overpressures in the Anadarko Basin, southwestern Oklahoma: Static or dynamic?: AAPG Bulletin, v. 86, p. 145–160. Leo, C. T. A., 1997, Exploration in the Gulf of Thailand in deltaic reservoirs, related to the Bongkot field, in A. J. Fraser, S. J. Matthews, and R. W. Murphy, eds., Petroleum geology of Southeast Asia: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 126, p. 77–87. Limp*rnpipat, O., A. Laird, M. R. P. Tingay, C. K. Morley, C. Kaewla, and H. Macintyre, 2012, Overpressures in the northern Malay Basin: Part 2. Implications for pore-pressure prediction: Proceedings of the Society of Petroleum Engineers–International Petroleum Technology Conference 2012, v. 4, p. 3278–3289. Ludwig, W. E., J. E. Nafe, and C. L. Drake, 1970, Seismic refraction, in A. E. Maxwell, ed., The sea: New York, Wiley-Interscience, p. 53–84. Luo, X., and G. Vasseur, 1992, Contributions of compaction and aquathermal pressuring to geopressure and the influence of environmental conditions: AAPG Bulletin, v. 76, p. 1550–1559. Madon, M., 1997, Analysis of tectonic subsidence and heat flow in the Malay Basin (offshore peninsular Malaysia): Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, v. 41, p. 95–108.

Madon, M., 2007, Overpressure development in rift basins: An example from the Malay Basin, offshore peninsular Malaysia: Petroleum Geoscience, v. 13, p. 169–180, doi:10.1144/1354-079307-744. Madon, M., P. Abolins, M. Jamaal Hoesni, and M. Bin Ahmad, 1999, Malay Basin, in Petronas, ed., The petroleum geology and hydrocarbon resources of Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Petronas, p. 173–217. Mantaring, A., F. Matsuda, and M. Okamoto, 1994, Analysis of overpressured zones at the southern margin of the Baram Delta province and their implications to hydrocarbon expulsion, migration and entrapment: 1994 AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 21–24, 1994, www.searchanddiscovery .com/abstracts/html/1994/intl/abstracts/1154.htm?q= %2BtextStrip%3Amantaring. McKenzie, D., 1978, Some remarks on the development of sedimentary basins: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 40, p. 25–32, doi:10.1016/0012-821X(78)90071-7. Meissner, F. F., 1978, Petroleum geology of the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana: Williston Basin Symposium, Montana Geological Society 24th Annual Conference, p. 207–227. Miller, T. W., C. H. Luk, and D. L. Olgaard, 2002, The interrelationships between overpressure mechanisms and in situ stress, in A. R. Huffman and G. L. Bowers, eds., Pressure regimes in sedimentary basins and their prediction: AAPG Memoir 76, p. 13–20. Momper, J. A., 1980, Generation of abnormal pressure through organic matter transformations (abs.): AAPG Bulletin, v. 64, p. 753. Morley, C. K., 1992, Hydrocarbon generation—A possible cause of elevated pore pressures in the Osen-Røa thrust sheet, Norway: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 14, p. 743–747, doi:10.1016/0191-8141(92)90131-F. Morley, C. K., and A. Racey, 2011, Tertiary stratigraphy, in M. F. Ridd, A. J. Barber, and M. J. Crow, eds., The geology of Thailand: The Geological Society (London), p. 223–272. Morley, C. K., and R. Westaway, 2006, Subsidence in the super-deep Pattani and Malay basins of Southeast Asia: A coupled model incorporating lower-crustal flow in response to post-rift sediment loading: Basin Research, v. 18, p. 51–84, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2117.2006.00285.x. Morley, C. K., N. Wonganan, A. Kornsawan, W. Phoosongsee, C. Haranya, and S. Pongwapee, 2004, Activation of rift oblique and rift parallel pre-existing fabrics during extension and their effect on deformation style: Examples from the rifts of Thailand: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 26, p. 1803–1829, doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2004.02.014. Mouchet, J. P., and A. Mitchell, 1989, Abnormal pressures while drilling: Boussens, France, Elf Aquitaine, 255 p. Neuzil, C. E., 1995, Abnormal pressures as a hydrodynamic phenomena: American Journal of Science, v. 295, p. 742– 786, doi:10.2475/ajs.295.6.742. Ngah, K., M. Madon, and H. D. Tjia, 1996, Role of pre-Tertiary basem*nt faults in the formation of the Malay and Penyu Basins, offshore peninsular Malaysia, in R. Hall and D. J. Blundell, eds., Tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 62, p. 281–289. O’Conner, S., R. E. Swarbrick, and R. W. Lahann, 2011,

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Geologically driven pore fluid pressure models and their implications for petroleum exploration. Introduction to thematic set: Geofluids, v. 11, p. 343–348, doi:10.1111 /j.1468-8123.2011.00354.x. Osborne, M. J., and R. E. Swarbrick, 1997, Mechanisms for generating overpressure in sedimentary basins: A reevaluation: AAPG Bulletin, v. 81, p. 1023–1041. Perry, E. A., and J. Hower, 1972, Late stage dehydration in deeply buried pelitic sediments: AAPG Bulletin, v. 56, p. 2013– 2021. Polachan, S., S. Pradidtan, C. Tongtaow, S. Janmaha, K. Intarawijitr, and C. Sangsuwan, 1991, Development of Cenozoic basins in Thailand: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 8, p. 84–97, doi:10.1016/0264-8172(91) 90047-5. Ramdhan, A. M., and N. R. Goulty, 2010, Overpressuregenerating mechanisms in the Peciko field, lower Kutai Basin, Indonesia: Petroleum Geoscience, v. 16, p. 367– 376, doi:10.1144/1354-079309-027. Sayers, C. M., G. M. Johnson, and G. Denyer, 2002, Predrill pore-pressure prediction using seismic data: Geophysics, v. 67, p. 1286–1292. Sibson, R. H., 1996, Structural permeability of fluid-driven fault-fracture meshes: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 18, p. 1031–1042. Spencer, C. W., 1987, Hydrocarbon generation as a mechanism for overpressuring in Rocky Mountain region: AAPG Bulletin, v. 71, p. 368–388. Swarbrick, R. E., and M. J. Osborne, 1998, Mechanisms that generate abnormal pressures: An overview, in B. E. Law, G. F. Ulmishek, and V. I. Slavin, eds., Abnormal pressures in hydrocarbon environments: AAPG Memoir 70, p. 13–34. Swarbrick, R. E., M. J. Osborne, and G. S. Yardley, 2002, Comparison of overpressure magnitude resulting from the main generating mechanisms, in A. R. Huffman and G. L. Bowers, eds., Pressure regimes in sedimentary basins and their prediction: AAPG Memoir 76, p. 1–12. Tingay, M., R. Hillis, C. Morley, R. Swarbrick, and E. Okpere, 2003, Variation in vertical stress in the Baram Basin, Brunei: Tectonic and geomechanical implications: Marine


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and Petroleum Geology, v. 20, p. 1201–1212, doi:10 .1016/j.marpetgeo.2003.10.003. Tingay, M., R. Hillis, R. Swarbrick, C. Morley, and A. Damit, 2007, “Vertically transferred” overpressures in Brunei: Evidence for a new mechanism for the formation of high magnitude overpressures: Geology, v. 35, p. 1023–1026, doi:10.1130/G23906A.1. Tingay, M. R. P., R. R. Hillis, R. E. Swarbrick, C. K. Morley, and A. R. Damit, 2009a, Origin of overpressure and pore pressure prediction in the Baram Delta Province, Brunei: AAPG Bulletin, v. 93, p. 51–74, doi:10.1306/ 08080808016. Tingay, M. R. P., R. Hillis, C. K. Morley, R. King, R. E. Swarbrick, and A. R. Damit, 2009b, Present-day stress and neotectonics of Brunei: Implications for petroleum exploration and production: AAPG Bulletin, v. 93, p. 75– 100, doi:10.1306/08080808031. Tingay, M. R. P., C. K. Morley, R. C. King, R. R. Hillis, D. Coblentz, and R. Hall, 2010a, Present-day stress field of Southeast Asia: Tectonophysics, v. 482, p. 92–104, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.06.019. Tingay, M. R. P., C. K. Morley, R. R. Hillis, and J. J. Meyer, 2010b, Present-day stress orientation in Thailand’s basins: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 32, p. 235–248, doi:10 .1016/j.jsg.2009.11.008. Traugott, M., 1997, Pore/fracture pressure determinations in deep water: Deepwater Technology, p. 68–70. Ungerer, P., E. Behar, and D. Discamps, 1983, Tentative calculation of the overall volume expansion of organic matter during hydrocarbon genesis from geochemistry data: Implications for primary migration, in M. Bjorøy, ed., Advances in organic geochemistry 1981: Chichester, John Wiley, p. 129–135. van Ruth, P., R. R. Hillis, R. E. Swarbrick, and P. Tingate, 2004, The origin of overpressure in the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia: Implications for pore pressure prediction: Petroleum Geoscience, v. 10, p. 247–257, doi:10 .1144/1354-079302-562. Yardley, G. S., and R. E. Swarbrick, 2000, Lateral transfer: A source of additional overpressure?: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 17, p. 523–538, doi:10.1016/S0264-8172 (00)00007-6.


DONALD EDWARD LAWSON 1924–2012 By Bruce Lawson, Casper, Wyoming James Lawson, Cheyenne, Wyoming

Donald E. Lawson died unexpectedly from heart failure on December 4, 2012. He had been admitted to the intensive care unit at the Wyoming Medical Center on December 3rd after falling at his home. Don was born in Potter, Nebraska, on August 20, 1924, where his father was employed as a telegrapher and depot agent for the Union Pacific Railroad. When Don was two years old, his father became the UPRR depot agent in Medicine Bow, Wyoming, where Don would grow up. As a child and teenager, Don worked for many of the local ranches in the vicinity of Medicine Bow, Hanna, and Elk Mountain. Following graduation from high school in Medicine Bow, Don

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joined the Army Air Corps within two months of the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After extensive meteorological training, he qualified as a B-17 flight engineer. After being discharged from the Army Air Corps as a corporal on February 9, 1946, Don enrolled at the University of Wyoming to study geology. His interest in geology was sparked by the fascinating geological formations he had observed as a boy while riding horses and working on various ranches near Medicine Bow. By the spring of 1949, he had earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in geology at the University of Wyoming. Don married Marjorie Bailey of Hanna, Wyoming in 1950. They had grown up as childhood friends. Following his graduation from UW, Don worked for the Ohio Oil Company as a petroleum geologist in a number of locations including Wyoming, Utah, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Don was an exceptional field geologist and spent months in the field mapping geological structures and formations in search of petroleum reserves. Don and Marjorie moved to Casper in 1953 where Don took a position as the district geologist for the Forest Oil Corporation. He was appointed as the district manager for Forest Oil in 1960 and he held that position until 1971, when Forest Oil closed their Casper office. From that point forward Don remained in Casper and worked as an independent petroleum geologist until 2010.


Throughout his career Don was active in the affairs of the Wyoming Geological Association and was a member of the WGA for over 60 years. At different times Don served as the president, vice president, and treasurer of the WGA. He was also active in AAPG, joining the association in 1950. Don was also certified by the state of Wyoming as a Professional Geologist. An ardent hunter and angler, Don would serve as a volunteer for the Wildlife Heritage Foundation and was a member of their Hunting and Fishing Expo advisory board for many years. He received several awards recognizing his service. Don’s favorite pastime was fishing Pathfinder Reservoir from his boat with his best friend Dennis Lower, and next-door neighbor Charlie Weckwerth. Don is survived by his two daughters, Leslie Lawson (Dan Himelspach) of Denver, Colorado and daughter Dawn Lawson of Casper; and two sons, Jay of Cheyenne, and Bruce of Casper. He is also survived by three grandchildren: Jennifer Lawson of Casper, and Mariah and Jonathan Himelspach of Denver, Colorado; and one great grand daughter, Kylar Heath of Casper. He was preceded in death by his wife, Marjorie, and his brother, Bob. A celebration of Don’s life was held December 28th at 5:30 P.M., at the Casper Petroleum Club. In lieu of flowers, memorials can be made to the Casper Humane Society.

BOOK RELEASES NEW RELEASES Buoyancy-Driven Flows, edited by Eric P. Chassignet, Claudia Cenedese, and Jacques Verron (2012). 436 pages. Published by Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013, USA. $120.00. (Hardback)

A History of Earth in 100 Groundbreaking Discoveries, by Douglas Palmer (2011). 415 pages. Published by Firefly Books (U.S.) Inc., P.O. Box 1338, Ellicott Station, Buffalo, New York, 14205. $29.95 (Paperback)

Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors, by Richard W. Allmendinger, Nestor Cardozo, and Donald M. Fisher (2012). 289 pages. Published by Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013, USA. $50.00 (Paperback)

Geoinformatics: Cyberinfrastructure for the Solid Earth Science, edited by G. Randy Keller, and Chaitanya Baru (2011). 374 pages. Published by Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013, USA. $130.00 (Hardback)

Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, 2nd Edition, by Bruce Hapke (2012). 513 pages. Published by Cambridge University Press, 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013, USA. $90.00 (Hardback)

Produced Water Treatment Field Manual, by Maurice Stewart and Ken Arnold (2011). 229 pages. Published by Gulf Professional Publishing, an imprint of Elsevier, 225 Wyman Street, Waltham, MA 02451, USA. $79.95 (Paperback)

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ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCES JOURNAL Articles are available through AAPG Pay-Per-View at http://payperview.datapages.com, and to DEG members, and Environmental Geosciences subscribers. To subscribe or become a DEG member, contact Norma Newby at [emailprotected]. CONTENTS Vol. 19, No. 4, December 2012 Predicting rock strength variability across stratigraphic interfaces in caprock lithologies at depth: Correlation between outcrop and subsurface By Elizabeth S. Petrie, Tamara N. Jeppson, and James P. Evans Groundwater development in hardrock terrain using morphometric analysis By Imran Ahmad Dar, K. Sankar, and Mithas Ahmad Dar

A S S O C I AT I O N R O U N D TA B L E AAPG 2013 Annual Convention Technical Program* May 19–22, 2013 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Theme Legend Theme 1:

Global Unconventional Resources

Theme 2:

The Appalachian Basin – A Re-emerging Giant

Theme 3:

Emerging Conventional Frontiers

Theme 4:

Active Conventional Oil and Gas Fields

Theme 5:


Theme 6:

Carbonates and Evaporites

Theme 7:

Energy and the Environment

Theme 8:

Analysis of Petroleum Systems

Theme 9:

Structural Geology and Tectonics

Theme 10:

Geophysics and Seismology

Theme 11:

E&P Technology and Research – The Past and The Future

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THEME 9 Extensional Tectonics: Implications for Tectonostratigraphic Evolution and Play Element Prediction (AAPG) Room 317/318 Chair: I. Norton 8:00 8:05

Sunday Afternoon Oral Sessions History of Petroleum Geology Forum (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: S. Testa and L. Woodfork 1:00 1:05 1:30 1:55


Introductory Remarks Why the History of Petroleum Matters: R. Sorkhabi Geology Impacts History: Influence of the Edwards Plateau on Frontier History of the Texas Hill Country: P. R. Rose Past, Present and Future Advancements in Methods for Detecting Hydrocarbon Seepage after 75 Years: D. Seneshen, J. V. Fontana* From the Battle of Fredricksburg to Promised Land — A Historical Perspective of Hydraulic Fracturing: S. Testa

Monday Morning Oral Sessions THEME 1 Lower Paleozoic Unconventional Plays of the Northeast U.S. (EMD/AAPG) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Co-Chairs: H. Cander and R. Blood 8:00

Introductory Remarks




Introductory Remarks Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of the West Orkney Basin, NE Atlantic Margin: Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration: P. C. Bird, J. A. Cartwright New Insight into Supradetachment Basin Formation and Fill from Basin-margin Growth Strata, Hornelen Basin, Norway: J. L. Aschoff Structure and Early Evolution of the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico: New Constraints from Marine Seismic Refraction Data: H. J. Van Avendonk, D. R. Eddy, G. Christeson, I. Norton, G. Karner, C. Johnson, E. Kneller, J. W. Snedden Unthinkable Physical Analogs for the Modern Concepts on Continental Stretching and Rupturing: P. V. Zalán

THEME 8 Exploring the Role of Ichnology in Modifying Porosity and Permeability I (SEPM) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: K. J. Cunningham and H. Curran 10:05 10:10


*Denotes presenter other than first author.

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An Overview of Pre-Devonian Petroleum Systems – Unique Characteristics and Elevated Risks: B. J. Katz Role of Petroleum Systems Modeling in Appraising the Point Pleasant Play, Eastern Ohio: S. G. Crews, J. M. Guthrie, K. Ahmed, J. A. Vines Shallow Onlap Model for Ordovician and Devonian Organic-Rich Shales, New York State: L. B. Smith Vigorous Anaerobic Methane Oxidation in the Upper Devonian Succession, Western New York; Possible Evidence for Devonian Gas Hydrates: G. Lash, R. Blood Break Biogenic Silica in the Devonian Shale Succession of the Appalachian Basin, USA: R. Blood, G. Lash, L. C. Bridges Assessment of CO2 Enhanced Recovery in Shale Gas Reservoirs: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Test in the Devonian Ohio Shale, Johnson County, Kentucky: B. C. Nuttall, D. E. Riestenberg, M. L. Godec, R. J. Butsch Gas Storage and Production in the Devonian Age Lower Huron Shale Formation in the Big Sandy Field, Kentucky: K. Pankowski-Heckman, S. McCallum Prediction and Distribution Analysis of Marcellus Shale Productive Facies in the Appalachian Basin, USA: G. Wang, T. R. Carr An Initial Assessment of the Point Pleasant and Utica Reservoirs in Eastern Ohio: K. A. Bowker


Introductory Remarks Alteration of Original Porosity and Permeability in Continental Deposits by Soil Biota: Concepts and Examples: S. T. Hasiotis, A. F. Halfen, H. N. Wasserman, D. Hirmas, J. Counts Ichnology and Paleopedology: Keys to Understanding Reservoir Quality in Continental-Estuarine Deposits of the Donovan Sand (Lower Cretaceous), Citronelle Field, Alabama: J. Pashin, D. C. Kopaska-Merkel, A. C. Arnold

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Bioturbation and Reservoir Quality: Towards a Genetic Approach: D. Knaust Ichnogenic Megaporosity and Permeability in Carbonate Aquifers and Reservoirs: Definitions and Examples: H. Curran, K. J. Cunningham Stratiform Flow in Aquifers: Implications of ThalassinideanGenerated Ichnofabrics in Lower Cretaceous to Pleistocene Carbonates: K. J. Cunningham

THEME 3 Recent Discoveries and Leading Edge Technologies (AAPG) Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: J. Bruce and J. Gordon 8:00 8:05

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Introductory Remarks Using Continuous Real-Time Compositional Gas Data for Horizontal Drilling and Detection of Natural Gas Liquids (NGL): W. Nagel Production Testing from Cuttings: J. M. Evensen Lightning Data, A New Geophysical Data Type: H. R. Nelson, D. Siebert, L. R. Denham Ocean Bottom Node Seismic Imaging — New Technology Deployed in Deepwater Nigeria: J. McCloy, S. Iyiola, M. Bee, G. Smith, C. Page, E. Berg Break Global Palaeogeography and Palaeo-Earth Systems in the Modeling of Source Rock Depositional Space and the Predictive Mapping of Source Quality: Regional Examples from East Africa and Atlantic Ocean Margin Basins: J. Harris, E. Anderson, A. Adriasola Munoz, R. Crossley, C. Glover, J. Hoyle, N. Stronach, C. Watkins, J. Watson, M. Goodrich, P. Valdes, R. Proctor Exploration Success in the Eastern Mediterranean: Levant Basin Gas Discoveries: D. Needham, J. French, M. Barrett, B. Bruce, V. O’Brien, G. Romero, M. Bogaards, J. Van Horn, G. Franco, S. Fenton Breakthrough Concept “Turning Hazards Into Resources, The Forgotten Play”: M. Isa, R. Kahar*, S. Shahar, S. Yu Wilcox Rebirth: South Louisiana: T. Rynott Independent Explorers Create High Value Opening Up New Countries: J. Wilson

THEME 6 Interplay of Evaporites and Carbonates Including Microbialites (SEPM) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: C. Kerans, E. Franseen and C. Iannello Bachtel 8:00 8:05





Introductory Remarks Characterization and Origin of Anhydrite-Rich “Lateral Caprock” Adjacent to Halite-Cored Salt Diapirs; Implications for Prospectivity in Salt Basins: C. A. Jackson, M. M. Lewis, A. Mannie The Central High Atlas in Morocco: A Snapshot of a Jurassic Diapiric Rifted Basin: J. Vergés, E. Saura, G. Messager, J. Martín-Martín, M. Moragas, P. Razin, C. Grelaud, R. Joussiaume, M. Malaval, D. Hunt Diapiric Controls on Early Jurassic Carbonate Platform Margins of the Central High-Atlas, Morocco: P. Razin, C. Grélaud, R. Joussiaume, M. Malaval, E. Saura, J. Martín-Martín, J. Vergés, G. Messager, M. Moragas, D. Hunt Characterization of Lacustrine Carbonate Microbialite Facies Associations of the Lower Cretaceous Codó Formation (Northeast Brazil): A. Bahniuk, J. A. McKenzie, S. Anjos, A. Barros, C. Vasconcelos


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Break Tectonic Controls on Very Thick and Laterally Confined Microbialites in the Pre-Salt Petroleum System of the South Atlantic: P. V. Zalán Lithology, Stratigraphic Architecture and Salt-related Structural Styles within the Enigmatic Evaporites of the Aptian Ariri Formation, Santos Basin, Offshore Brazil: C. Rodriguez, C. A. Jackson, R. Bell, A. Rotevatn, M. Francis Implications of Reservoir Quality Development and Distribution from Initial Petrographic Investigations of Lacustrine Microbial Carbonates of the Yacoraite Formation, Northwestern Argentina: J. W. Eleson, S. E. Kaczmarek Controls on Reservoir Development in the Toca Formation of Block 0, Offshore Cabinda, Angola: M. S. Wasson, A. Saller, D. Self Stevensite, Oolite, and Microbialites in the Eocene Green River Formation, Sanpete Valley, Uinta Basin, Utah: P. Buchheim, S. M. Awramik

THEME 5 Alluvial-Fluvial Deltaic-Eolian Siliciclastics (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: J. L. Aschoff and B. J. Willis 8:00 8:05

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Introductory Remarks Influence of Water and Sediment Supply on the Completeness of the Stratigraphic Record and the Construction of Stratigraphic Surfaces in Alluvial Fans and Deltas: K. M. Straub, C. Esposito Geomorphic Elements in Modern Continental Sedimentary Basins: G. Weissmann, A. J. Hartley, G. Nichols, L. Scuderi Trace Fossil and Lithofacies Associations, Lower Triassic Fremouw Formation, Beardmore Glacier, Central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: S. T. Hasiotis, P. P. Flaig Analysis and Correlation of Growth Strata of the Lower Dawson Formation: Insight into the Tectono-stratigraphic Evolution of the Colorado Front Range: K. Harvey, J. Aschoff Break Facies Characterization and Stratigraphic Prediction of Proximal Fluvial Systems in Endorheic Basins — The View from the Margins: D. Ventra Funny Things Meanders Do: A Summary of the Diversity of Meander Processes and Morphology and Implications for Reservoir Geometry and Quality within Channel Belts: J. Holbrook Deltas or Marine-Influenced Distributive Fluvial Systems? Predicting Facies Distributions in Fluvio-Deltaic Systems: A. Hartley, G. Weissmann, L. Scuderi, K. McNamara Lower Permian Antarctic Marine Deltas of the Mackellar Formation: Turnabout Ridge, Beardmore Glacier Region, Central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica: P. P. Flaig, S. Hasiotis, A. Jackson, J. Isbell Anatomy of a Cretaceous Tide-Influenced Subaqueous Delta: The O’Brien Spring Member, Haystack Mountains Formation, S. Wyoming: C. A. Uroza, R. Steel

THEME 11 Geochemical Assessment of Petroleum Resources (DEG) Room 407 Co-Chairs: K. M. Carter, R. C. Capo and P. Ziemkiewicz 8:00 8:05

Introductory Remarks Hydrocarbon Resource Characterization and Modeling: Past, Present and Future: Y. Z. Ma, E. Gomez, B. Luneau, W. Clark, M. Du



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11:10 11:30

The Significance of Isotope Variations in Brine from the Poplar Oil Field, Montana: Z. E. Peterman, K. Kyser, J. N. Thamke Characteristics and Significance of Gas Accumulation during the Uplift Process of Xujiahe Formation Tight Gas System, Central Sichuan Basin: C. Bian, H. Wang, Z. Wang, A. Xu, Z. Xu, Y. Li Could Heavy Carbon Dioxide Be of Organic Origin?: Y. Shuai, S. Zhang, P. Peng, Y. Zou Break Study on Oil-Source Correlation Methods of Severely Biodegraded Oils in Bozhong Subbasin, Bohai Bay Basin, China: W. Jun, X. Zhou, G. Yonghua, Y. Bo, W. Feilong, Z. You Niobrara Source Rock Maturity in the Denver Basin: A Study of Differential Heating and Tectonics on Petroleum Prospectivity Using Programmed Pyrolysis: D. J. Thul, S. Sonnenberg Examination of Nitrogen Isotopes as a Proxy for Water Column Redox States During Deposition of Marine Shales: A Comparison of the Woodford and Springer Shales, Anadarko Basin, Western Oklahoma: K. Rivera, T. M. Quan Finding and Protecting Energy Resources with 21st Century Geochemical Tools: D. Seneshen, J. V. Fontana The Occurrence of Methane in Shallow Groundwater from Extensive Pre-Drill Sampling: J. Boulanger, B. Smith

THEME 8 Basin Analysis, Sedimentation and Tectonics I (SEPM) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: D. Kamola and C. Jackson 8:00 8:05




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Introductory Remarks Sedimentological and Architectural Characteristics of a Rift Initiation Package; Middle-Upper Jurassic, North Sea: J. Andsbjerg Structure and Evolution of a Fault Degradation Complex, Coastal Fault Belt, Suez Rift, Egypt: M. Muravchik, R. Gawthorpe, I. Sharp Fluvial-Estuarine Source Rock Model for Exploration in Continental Rift Systems: Western Desert, Egypt: W. Bosworth, M. Thompson, M. Drummond Outlier Basins on Passive Margins — Cretaceous Outcrop Analogues and Play Concepts for the Central and North Atlantic: G. Wach, N. Pimentel, R. Pena dos Reis Break Petroleum System Modeling and Prospectivity of the Red Sea Basin, Sudan: Y. T. Hadad, W. H. Abdullah Tectonic Control of Channel Morphology and Orientation in the Gulf of Thailand: J. Lambiase, N. Ahmad, P. Wainuson, D. Paramita, P. Thongsang, B. Priyanto Evolution of the Lake Kivu Rift, East Africa: A Magmatically Active Extensional Mixed Siliciclastic/ Carbonate System: C. Scholz, D. Wood, X. Zhang, D. Mburu Stratal Patterns Within Fluvial Strata of the Upper Cretaceous Hunter Canyon/Williams Fork Formation and their Implication for Foreland Basin Evolution: D. Kamola, R. C. Ost Channel Avulsion and Sediment Aggradation Rate Controls on Fluvial Sandstone Body Stacking Patterns, Miocene, North Spain: G. Nichols

THEME 4 Conventional Oil and Gas Fields I (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: R. W. Lynch and E. Rothman 8:00

Introductory Remarks





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Interaction of Production Strategy with Stratigraphic and Sedimentologic Heterogeneity in Carbonate Reservoirs: P. Fitch, M. D. Jackson, G. J. Hampson, C. M. John Correlating Porosity with Acoustic Impedance in Sandstone Gas Reservoirs: Examples from the Atokan Sandstones of the Arkoma Basin, Southeastern Oklahoma: I. Cemen, J. Fuchs, R. Gertson, C. Hager Identification of Thin Gas-Bearing Beds in an Ultra-Deep Carbonate Reservoir through High-Resolution Seismic Inversion: T. Zhang, Y. Sun, H. Zhang, T. Guo, X. Cai Increase Productive Life and Add to Inplace Oil in Mature Reservoirs with Integrated Studies: Zubair Reservoir in Kuwait: S. A. Azim, S. Al-Anezi, B. Kostic, M. Hoppe, M. Al-Blayees, S. Al-Qattan, B. Al-Saad Break Impact of Heterogeneity on Flow in Shallow-Marine Reservoirs: Application to a Thin Oil Column Produced via Horizontal Wells: F. A. Dilib, M. D. Jackson, G. H. Graham, G. J. Hampson Predicting Connectivity and Rock Typing of the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs in the Southern North Sea (NW Europe): Tackling Mature Reservoirs and Evergreen Challenges with a “Back to the Rocks” Approach: A. Moscariello, T. van Hoof, G. Kunakbayeva, J. ten Veen, F. Van der Belt, P. Davis, H. Williams The Value of Detailed Reservoir Characterization and Stratigraphic Interpretation: Radically Changing Development Plans within a Siliciclastic Reservoir of the San Joaquin Basin, California, USA: J. Allen, D. Larue, M. Henning, E. Hernandez, M. Mercer TBD A Review of Selected Michigan Niagaran Reef Waterfloods to Estimate the Fractional Flow Behavior During Flooding and Hysteresis Effects After Flooding: T. J. Brock

Monday Morning Poster Sessions Presenters in booths: 9:00 a.m.–10:30 a.m. AAPG Student Research Poster Session Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. A. Waters and W. Hottman • Crustal Provinces of the Nicaraguan Rise as a Control on Source Rock Distribution and Maturity: B. Ott, P. Mann, M. Saunders • Basin Margin Clinoform Analysis in the Dacian Basin of the Paratethys Domain, Romania: R. Fongngern, R. Steel, C. Olariu • High-Resolution Reservoir Characterization of Incised Valley Fills of the Lower Cretaceous Grand Rapids Formation, Upper Mannville Group, East Central Alberta, Canada: A. B. Coderre, H. Pouderoux, P. Pedersen, A. Leier • Interaction between Depositional and Post-Depositional Processes in the Cenozoic Northern North Sea and Implications for Understanding Basin-Scale Fluid Flow: O. Olobayo, M. Huuse, C. A. Jackson • Subsurface Characterization of the Mississippian (Osagean to Meramecian) Carbonate Reservoirs of the Anadarko Shelf, North-Central Oklahoma and South-Central Kansas: B. Wittman, T. Cahill, X. Xie • Defining Geobody Geometries and Architectural Elements within Fluvio-Deltaic Depositional Systems: A Quantitative Analysis of the Mixed Continental/Marine Mungaroo Fm, NW Australia: G. Heldreich, J. Redfern, D. Hodgetts • New Observations of Facies A of the Eagle Ford (Boquillas) Formation in West Texas: Does It Represent a Shallow or Deep Water Depositional Environment?: M. Wehner, R. Gardner, M. C. Pope



• Structural Constraints on Syn-Rift Depocenter Distribution and Clastic Entry Points at Rifted Margins; A Case Study of the Vesterdjupet Fault Zone, Lofoten Margin, North Norway: G. A. Henstra, A. Rotevatn, R. Gawthorpe, W. Helland-Hansen, E. Bastesen, R. Ravnas • Buried Cretaceous Delta of the Barreirinhas Basin, Offshore Brazil: Potential Source of Structural and Stratigraphic Traps in Deepwater Sandstone?: K. Reuber, P. Mann, M. Saunders • Lateral Continuity of Eagle Ford Group Strata in Lozier Canyon and Antonio Creek Terrell County, Texas: R. Gardner, M. Wehner, M. C. Pope • Provenance of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet and Surrounding Formations from U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronology: A. Lisi, A. Weislogel • Depositional and Mineralogical Controls on Organic and Inorganic Pore Distribution in the Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Mudrock System, South Texas: L. Ko, R. G. Loucks, S. C. Ruppel, H. Rowe, K. L. Milliken • Petroleum Prospectivity of the Southwestern Nicaraguan Rise (Colombian Caribbean) Based on Regional Integration of Seismic and Well Data: L. Carvajal Arenas, P. Mann, M. Saunders • Upper Ordovician Blue Mountain Formation in Southwestern Ontario, Canada: Progress Toward High Frequency Allostratigraphic Correlation to the Utica Shale in Ohio and Pennsylvania: S. Sweney, B. Cheadle • Natural Fracture Analysis Related to Facies and Strain Variability in the Middle and Upper Williams Fork Formations, Piceance Basin, Colorado: E. C. Lee, B. D. Trudgill

THEME 1 Insights from Paleogeography, Tectonic Setting and Burial History (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Chair: J. Gale • Preliminary Investigation of the Aptian Section as a Potential Unconventional “Shale Gas” Reservoir in the Downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: P. Hackley, C. Enomoto, C. D. Lohr, K. R. Scott, B. J. Valentine, F. T. Dulong, H. Alimi, A. M. Bove • The Permian Phosphoria Formation: Stratigraphy, PaleoEnvironments, and Petroleum Potential: M. S. Hendrix, M. Hofmann • Carbonaceous Shales in the Araripe Basin, NE Brazil: A Potential Shale Gas Reservoir: J. S. Neto, H. P. Mort, R. Pereira, J. A. Barbosa, V. H. Neumann, W. Vortisch, O. Filho, P. Brandão, J. Pacheco • Shale Reservoirs: Deposition in Active-Versus Passive-Margin Settings: J. D. Eoff • Horizontal Detachments, Planes of Weaknesses and Layer Parallel Shortening in Shale — Potential Impact on Unconventional Shale Development: J. Chatellier • Possible Role of Organic Matter within Albo-Vraconnian and Cenomanian-Turonian Black Shales of Slata-Guern Halfaya in the Genesis of Pb-Zn Ore Deposits in the NW Tunisian Diapiric Zone: L. Rddad • Integration of Detailed Geologic Study with Log-Based Rock Classification Helps Define the Regional Geologic Setting of the Haynesville and Bossier Shale Plays: S. Marino, S. Herring, K. Stevens, D. Handwerger, R. Suarez-Rivera THEME 5 Advances in Correlation Methods and Architectural Analysis of Clastic Reservoirs (SEPM)



Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: G. Gustason and B. Bracken • Application of Sequence Stratigraphy to Nonmarine Successions Revisited: An Example from the Middle and Upper Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin CO: M. Wiechman, J. L. Aschoff • A New Twist on Sequence-Stratigraphic Correlations in Fluvial Strata: Applying the Buffer Concept to Identification and Correlation of “Stable” Low-Accommodation Intervals: N. Alexandrowicz, J. Holbrook • Depositional Architecture-Based Correlation Techniques for Fluvial and Deltaic Reservoirs in Lacustrine Basins: X. Yu, S. Li, L. Shunli, B. Chen THEME 6 Carbonate Diagenesis (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: G. P. Eberli, J. Kenter and M. Skalinski • The Effect of Salinity on the Rate of Dolomitization: S. L. Martin, S. E. Kaczmarek* • Origin of Fault-Fracture-Related Dolomitization, Mississippian Limestones, Isle of Man, UK: J. Hendry, J. M. Gregg*, K. L. Shelton, I. Somerville, S. Crowley • Subsurface Seven Rivers (Guadalupian) Anhydrite-Dolomite Transition, Eddy Co, New Mexico, USA: Modification of a Depositional Facies Change by Permian Meteoric Dissolution: A. A. Brown, R. G. Loucks • Fracture-controlled Burial Dolomitization: Outcrop Studies in Northern Oman: V. Vandeginste, C. John, J. Cosgrove • Dolomitization of Madison Limestone in the Green River Basin, Wyoming; Geochemical Evidence for Low Temperature Diagenesis and the Relation to Regional Porosity Trends: J. F. McLaughlin, S. A. Quillinan, R. Surdam, R. Bentley, Y. Ganshin • The Distribution and Formation Mechanism of Dolomite in Triassic Feixianguan Formation in JianNan Area: G. Wang, P. Li, G. Chen, X. Yu • Fault/fracture-Related Dolomitization in the Thebes Formation, Hammam Faraun Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt: An Outcrop Study of Massive and Stratabound Dolomite Bodies in Remobilized Carbonates: H. J. Corlett, C. Hollis, R. Gawthorpe, J. Hirani, D. Hodgetts, A. Rotevatn, E. Bastesen • Meteoric Diagenesis and Fluid-Rock Interaction in the Middle Permian Capitan Backreef: Yates Formation, Slaughter Canyon, New Mexico: J. W. Bishop, D. A. Osleger, I. P. Montañez, D. Y. Sumner • Meteoric Calcite Cementation: Diagenetic Response to Relative Sea-Level Fall and Effect on Porosity and Permeability, Upper Miocene, Southeast Spain: Z. Li, R. H. Goldstein, E. Franseen • Lower Permian Cumulative Paleosols from the Hugoton Gas Field: Characteristics, Paleoenvironmental Implications, and Sequence Stratigraphic Significance: J. Counts, S. Hasiotis THEME 6 New Tools and Techniques to Characterize Carbonate Reservoirs — Advances in Seismic Imaging, Well-log Analysis, Reservoir Modeling (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. Bachtel, B. Coffey and K. Verwer • Dolomitization in the Ghawar Field: An Update Based on the Clumped Isotope Technique: P. Swart, D. L. Cantrell, M. Arienzo, S. Murray • Full-Core Porosity and Permeability Comparison to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Results in Mississippi Lime: C. H. Smith, L. Ziane

• In Situ Validation of PSDM Seismic Volumetric Curvature as a Tool for Paleokarst Heterogeneity Studies: Results from an Extended-Reach Lateral: J. Rush, W. L. Watney, D. E. Hedke, J. Doveton, M. Fazelalavi • Use of Clumped Isotopes to Reduce Uncertainties in Reconstructing the Thermal History of Carbonate Reservoirs: C. M. John, A. Jourdan, T. Kluge, S. Davis, V. Vandeginste • QuantumRD for Characterizing Permeability Barriers and Compartmentalization in Tight Carbonates and Clastic Reservoirs: A. Gulati, R. Bogdan • Challenge: Preserving Sector Model Integrity in Downscaling from the Full Field Earth Model for Steam Flood Forecasts in a Carbonate Reservoir: 1st Eocene Reservoir, Wafra Field, Partitioned Zone, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia: D. W. Dull, T. Osterloh, M. Shook, E. Rubin • CO3DB — The Digital Carbonate Database: F. Hasiuk • Recognition Technology and Applications of Multi-Genesis Superimposed Karst Reservoir in Tarim Basin — A Case Study on Weathering Curst in Ordovician Yingshan Formation of Tazhong Area: H. Wang, H. Zhang

THEME 9 Geomechanical Modeling of Natural and Stimulated Reservoirs (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: A. P. Morris and R. K. Davies • A Geomechanical Study and Hydraulic Fracture Geometry Analysis of the Longmaxi Shale in South China: Q. Li, M. Chen, Y. Jin, F. Wang • Time-Dependent Subsidence Associated with Compaction in Reservoir-Bounding Shale: C. Chang, E. Mallman, M. Zoback • Using Seismic Forward Modeling to Assess Fault Stability During Fluid Injection: A. Wood, D. A. Paton, R. Collier • How to Add Value to Tight Rock Fracturing Stages Using Geologically Constrained 3-D Fracture Models and Microseismicity: J. Daniel, M. Delorme, C. Kada-kloucha, N. Khvoenkova, S. Schueller, C. Souque • Testing the Linear Scanline Method for Fracture Distribution Assessment in Multi-Deformed Evaporite Beds of Northeast Brazil, to Improve Geomechanical Models: T. Miranda, J. A. Barbosa, V. H. Neumann, I. Gomes, G. Matos, R. Santos • Evaluating the Efficacy of Restoration Based Fracture Prediction Methods in Structurally Deformed Reservoirs: R. Shackleton, M. Cooke, G. Johnson, R. Muir • Geomechanical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing: Why Mechanical Stratigraphy and Stress State Matter: K. J. Smart, G. I. Ofoegbu, A. P. Morris, D. A. Ferrill, R. N. McGinnis

THEME 10 3-D Seismic Attribute Method-Based Interpretations Relevant to Stratigraphic and Fault Geometry of Hydrocarbon Accumulations (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Amtmann and J. Daniels • Methods of Reservoir Identification for Iso-Velocity Sand-Mud Strata: R. Pu • Detailed Seismic Characterization of a Heavily Karsted Zone: A. Fernandez, K. Marfurt • Post-Stack Processing and Seismic Inversion of 2-D Line Bell Creek Field, Powder River Basin, Montana: M. Ostadhassan, J. R. Braunberger, J. Hamling, C. Gorecki • New Seismic Attribute for Determination of Lithology and Brittleness: R. Sharma, S. Chopra*

• Seismic Attribute Database for Selective Use of Seismic Attributes for a Given Application: J. Amtmann, C. G. Eichkitz, M. G. Schreilechner • Seismic Attribute Mapping in Carbonate Depositional Environment – Some Lessons from Case Studies: F. Hong, E. Shipilova • Spectral-Velocity Prediction of Geological Section Types and Reservoir Properties: M. Afanasyev • Prestack Time Migration and Impedance Inversion of a Mississippi Lime Reservoir, Osage County, Oklahoma, USA: B. L. Dowdell, K. Marfurt • Fault Extraction Using Point Cloud Approach to a Seismic Enhanced Discontinuity Cube: A. Bounaim, T. Boe, W. Athmer, P. D’Hamonville, L. Sønneland • Seismic Geomorphology of a Shelf-Slope System in the South of Colombian Caribbean Offshore Based on Seismic Attributes Analysis: E. Alfaro, V. Ramírez C., F. Malagón, I. Olaya • Enhanced Fault Segmentation Using an Adaptive 3-D Sobel Filter: A. A. Aqrawi, D. S. Barka • Identification and Characterization of Paleo-Karsts within DeepBuried Carbonates in Central Tarim Basin, China: Constraints from Integrated 3-D Seismic Records: J. Yu, Z. Li • The Application of Semi-Supervised Geobody Detection Technique using Multiple Seismic Attributes in Petroleum Exploration: L. Li, X. Ran, C. Tao, Z. Wan, S. Zhan • Impact of Petroleum and Gas Model of Origin on the Exploration of their Commercial Accumulations: R. Seyful-Mulyukov • Color Blending On Spectral Decomposition Method For Delineating Geological Features: G. Erlangga, Y. F. Swastiraras, K. Afafa • Delineation of Reservoir Compartments in Fluvial Sand Systems by Using Spectral Decomposition and Seismic Attributes: Case Study from the Gulf of Thailand: M. N. Ahmad, S. Sriburee, P. Rowell • Using Seismic Inversion Techniques to Delineate Rift-Related Miocene Sand Reservoirs in the Gulf of Thailand: M. N. Ahmad, B. Priyanto, P. Rowell • Using Geological Expression Techniques to Reveal Complex Regional Structural Information Without Conventional Interpretation: T. Wooltorton

THEME 10 Potential Fields and Other Geophysical Methods and Analysis Techniques Relevant to Exploration Geophysics (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: A. N. Christensen and A. Adam • Study on Fine Time-Depth Calibration in Petroleum Exploration: J. B. Hou • The Application of Full Azimuth 3-D Seismic Fracture Detection Technology in the Prediction of Favorable Reservoirs within the Shengbei Five Well Area Tight Sandstone Region: G. Xiang, R. Jianbin, Y. Xiaowei, Z. Jinxue, H. Zhengtao, Z. Yuan, L. Fulei • Trace of Hydrocarbon Migration Interpreted on Seismic Data: A Case Study from the Offshore Bohai Sea, China: Y. Wang, L. Huang • Understanding the Deformation of the Naga Thrust Triangle Zone, NE India, Using Structural Modeling of 2-D Seismic Data: B. B. Michael, K. Shukla, C. M. Burberry, P. Jaiswal • Data Evaluation in AVO Analysis: Y. Zhili, F. Guozhang, L. Fuliang, W. Bin, Y. Taotao • Airborne Gravity Gradiometry for Rapid Mapping of Hydrocarbon Exploration Plays: A. N. Christensen, M. Dransfield



• Local Sedimentary Structure and Regional Linear Trends Indicated by an Airborne Micromagnetic Survey of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: J. P. Land • Delineation of Groundwater Aquifers Using an Electrical Resistivity Survey in the Dordab Region, Red Sea State, Eastern Sudan: A. Adam, S. Kaka • Comparing Seismic Resolution and Signal and Noise Quality between Dense Point-Receiver and Conventional Data Over the Bakken Formation in North Dakota: N. C. Banik, A. Salama, M. Egan, A. Koesoemadinata, K. G. El-Kaseeh • Coherence Technique and Its Application in Xisha Offshore: Y. Taotao • A Reservoir Characterization Case Study Based on the Structural and Depositional Isochronous Framework: Y. Ling, X. Guo, Q. Song, Z. Xia*

THEME 10 VSP, Microseismic and Rock Physics Methods Relevant to Exploration Geophysics I (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Chair: T. Jordan • Overview of Microseismic Play as Monitoring Geothermal Reservoir Sustainable in Indonesia: B. Guspudin • Hydraulic Fracture Monitoring: Integrating Multi-Scale Borehole-Based Geophysical Measurement to Improve Formation Understanding: J. Le Calvez, M. Puckett • Petrophysical Relationship to Predict Synthetic Porosity Log: T. Guntoro, I. A. Putri • Rational Rock Physics For Improved Velocity Prediction And Reservoir Properties Estimation For Granite Wash (Tight Sands) in Anadarko Basin, Texas: M. A. Durrani, K. Wilson, J. Chen, B. Tapp, A. Jubran • Physical Changes Associated with Maturation in Organic Rich Rocks: S. Zargari, M. Prasad • Hydraulic Fracturing Optimization for Woodford Shale through Integration of Geological Characterization and Coupled Anisotropic Thermo-Hydro-Geomechanics: Y. N. Abousleiman, S. Hoang*, C. Liu • Relating P-Wave Velocity to Rock Strength in High-Porosity, Shallowly Buried Sediments: Implications for in Situ Stress Estimates: K. A. Olcott, D. Saffer • Predicting Seismically Thin Sandstone Reservoirs by Integrating Tectno-Paleogeomorphology and Seismic Sedimentology: A Case Study: L. Xu, H. Zeng*, P. Xiugang, G. Wang, W. Liu • Quantitative Estimation of Oil-Water Contact in a Jurassic Clastic Reservoir Using Elastic Wave Propagation: Z. Zhang, Y. Sun • Crosswell Imaging with LCB Beamlet: Y. Yueming, R. Wu, X. Zhuang

THEME 11 Application of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy to Reservoir Assessment I (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Chair: T. Mroz • A Computer Application for Automatic Interpretation of Depositional Process from Visual Descriptions of Sedimentary Facies: J. L. Carbonera, D. E. Rosa, M. Abel, C. M. Scherer • Do Pennsylvanian Cyclothems Record Glacioeustacy?: B. C. Dyer, A. C. Maloof • Intercalation Pattern and Its Impact on Development of Braided River in SAGD Test Area of Fengcheng Oilfield in Junggar Basin, Northwest China: L. Haiyan, G. Yang



• Messinian Seismic Stratigraphy of the Nile Delta: Identification of the RST (Regressive System Tract): M. I. Abdel-Fattah, J. D. Pigott • Absolute Time Constraints on the Silurian-Devonian Boundary D13C Excursion: J. M. Husson, B. Schoene, A. C. Maloof, S. Bluher • An Emerging Concept of “Ever-Ready” 3-D Numerical Reservoir Models: A Case Study from the Dukhan Field, State of Qatar: H. A. Alansi Alyafei, R. Stanley, F. Al Tamimi, L. Weber • A Cenomanian-Age Deep Continental Shelf Record of Cyclical Anoxia, Gulf of Mexico, South Texas: H. Rowe, S. C. Ruppel, L. Moran • Chemostratigraphy of Mudrocks: Bone Spring Formation, Delaware Basin, West Texas: S. Nance, H. Rowe • Rediscussion on Sequence Stratigraphy Standardization: Some Modification Attempt on Base Level Cycle Definition: L. Song • Recognition and Definition of Oscillating Base Level Subcycle: An Example from S Reservoir in Bozhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, East China: T. Fan, G. Hu, L. Song, L. Yu • Sequence Stratigraphic Framework and Sedimentary System Evolution of Lishu Rift in Songliao Basin: X. Chen, Y. Ji, T. Fan • A Special Sedimentary Type: Flood-overlake and Incised Valley Filling Deposition in Faulted Lake Depression—An Example from Huimin Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: C. Zhang, Z. Jiang, J. Wang • Applicant of Seismic Sedimentology Methods to Analyze Sedimentary Facies Evolution in A Fault Depression, Biyang, East China: X. Geng, X. Zhu, Y. Dong, C. Lin • Geological Data Scale Integration Through Interactive Visualization for Geological Model Building: O. Paesi da Silva, C. Freitas, A. Lorenzatti, M. Abel*, L. F. De Ros, K. Goldberg • Intelistrata: A System for Stratigraphic Interpretation of Well Logs: S. R. Fiorini, M. Abel*, C. M. Scherer

THEME 11 Application of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy to Reservoir Assessment II (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Chair: P. MacKenzie • Forward Stratigraphic Modeling of Deltaic Deposits Using Delft 3-D: C. Esposito, R. Boyd, K. M. Straub • Portable Technology Brings the Laboratory to the Well Site: K. Pfau, G. Oliver, L. J. Plant* • Correlation of Red Beds and Evaporite Units Between Surface and Subsurface: Addressing Challenges for Petroleum Geology: K. C. Benison, J. Zambito • A New Era in Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy: Computational Seismic Stratigraphy in the Undergraduate Classroom: J. Wolak, J. Ochoa, M. Pelissier, N. Hemstra • Using X-Ray Fluorescence to Quantify Clay Content in Mudrock and Sandstone Outcrops: A. A. Brown, R. K. Davies • Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS: R. A. Socki, D. Pernia, M. Evans, Q. Fu, A. Bissada, J. Curiale, P. Niles • Genetic Types and Accumulation of the Deep Cracked Gas Pools of Minfeng Area in Dongying Depression: H. Liu

Monday Afternoon Oral Sessions Discovery Thinking (AAPG/DPA) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Co-Chairs: C. Sternbach and E. Dolly

1:15 1:20 2:00 2:40 3:00 3:40


Introductory Remarks Marcellus Shale — Geologic Considerations for an Evolving North American Liquids-Rich Play: W. Zagorski Wasatch-Green River Resource Play, Utah: J. Roesink, J. Anderson Break Horn River Devonian Shale Gas Discoveries in NE British Columbia: R. Spitzer Integrated Reservoir Evaluation as a Means for Unlocking Maximum Resource Value in an Unconventional Reservoir: Niobrara Formation, DJ Basin, Colorado: M. Deacon The Mississippi Lime: Outcrop to Subsurface and the Evolution of a Play: S. Matson

Michel T. Halbouty Lecture (AAPG) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Chair: M. Canich Speaker: Jeff Ventura, President and CEO, Range Resources 5:10 p.m.– 6:00 p.m. THEME 8 Exploring the Role of Ichnology in Modifying Porosity and Permeability II (SEPM) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: K. J. Cunningham and H. Curran 1:15 1:20

1:40 2:00


2:40 3:25


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Introductory Remarks Bridging the Gap from Hand-Specimen to Basin: Understanding the Scalar Impacts of Bioturbation on Reservoir Quality: R. Callow, D. McIlroy, L. Herringshaw Biogenic Permeability in the Bakken Formation: M. Gingras, S. Angulo, L. Buatois Ichnological Controls on Hydrocarbon Shale Properties in the Light of Three-Dimensional Volumetric Reconstructions of Shale Ichnofabric: M. Bednarz, D. McIlroy Permeability Distributions in Non-Surface Constrained Biogenic Textural Heterogeneities: A Case Study from the Upper Cretaceous Lysing Formation, Offshore MidNorway: C. A. Polo, G. Baniak, M. K. Gingras, S. Pemberton Break Characterization of Permeability Distribution in Bioturbated Geological Media using X-Ray Microtomography and Spot-permeametry: G. Baniak, A. D. La Croix, C. A. Polo, T. L. Playter, S. Pemberton, M. K. Gingras Ichnologic Suites and Their Controls on Permeability Distributions in the Lower Cretaceous Viking Formation, South-Central Alberta, Canada: A. D. La Croix, J. A. MacEachern, A. Hsieh, D. M. Allen, S. E. Dashtgard Three Dimensional Permeability Associated with Diplocraterion Burrows: M. Leaman, D. McIlroy Quantitative Assessments of Petrophysical Properties in Biogenic Dual-Permeability Systems: Facing the Challenge of Highly Bioturbated Heterogeneous Reservoirs: C. A. Polo, G. Baniak, M. K. Gingras, S. Pemberton Do Animal Sediment Interactions Preserve Organic Carbon during Shale Diagenesis? The Role of Grain and Mineral Selective Deposit Feeding: D. Harazim, D. McIlroy, R. Wogelius, N. Edwards, U. Bergmann

THEME 1 Shale Plays of the Americas (Non-U.S.) (AAPG/EMD) Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: F. Walles and S. Egenhoff

1:15 1:20




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Introductory Remarks Devonian Resource Plays of British Columbian and the North West Territories: From a Global Sequence Stratigraphic and Geodynamic Context to 3-D Analysis: K. C. Evans, A. Messer, O. E. Sutcliffe, R. M. Martin, N. Harvey Establishing a Sequence Stratigraphic Model for the Horn River Shale Succession, Horn River Basin, British Columbia: M. Kennedy, T. Dong, N. Harris Characterization of Organic Matter in the Canadian Lower Triassic Montney Shale Gas Reservoir: H. Sanei, M. Freeman, C. Clarkson, T. Gentzis Geologic Framework & Reservoir Characterization of the Cardium Formation, Northern Pembina, Alberta, Canada: A. Wiseman, F. F. Krause, C. Debuhr Break Pitfalls in Assessing Lacustrine Shale Versus Marine Shale Prospects: Lessons from the Frederick Brook Shale of New Brunswick: T. Martel Ordovician-Aged Liquid-Rich Shales and Hydrothermal Dolomites Plays: An Updated Review of the Eastern Canada Anticosti Basin Hydrocarbon Potential: J. Marcil, J. Lavoie, N. Mechti, P. K. Dorrins, B. Marcotte, J. Lavoie Reservoir Characterization and Exploration Assessment of Tight Gas Sands Related to Unconventional Concepts. Queen City Formation, Burgos Basin, Mexico: S. D’Alessio, M. A. Porras, T. Arikuma Gas-Oil Shale, The New Frontier Exploration in Brazil: F. S. de Miranda Technological Developments for Enhancing Extra Heavy Oil Productivity in Fields of the “Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco” (FPO), PDVSA, Venezuela: T. Villarroel, R. D. Hernandez

THEME 7 Evaluating Environmental Impacts from Shale Gas Development (DEG) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: F. Baldassare and M. Engle 1:15 1:20




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Introductory Remarks Emission Measurements from Natural Gas Development and Regional Background Characterization of Ambient Air Quality in the Marcellus Shale Region: P. DeCarlo, J. Goetz, E. Fortner, J. Wormhoudt, P. Massoli, C. Floerchinger, W. Brooks, B. Knighton, S. Herndon, C. Kolb, E. Knipping, S. Shaw Measurement of Air Quality Impacts During Hydraulic Fracturing on a Marcellus Shale Well Pad in Greene County, Pennsylvania: N. Pekney, G. Veloski, M. Reeder, J. Tamilia, R. Diehl, R. W. Hammack Dynamics of Marcellus Shale Environmental Health and Safety Incident Reporting in Pennsylvania: D. Glosser, D. Bain Reductive Weathering of Black Shale During Hydraulic Fracturing and Release of Barium: M. Sharma, D. J. Renock, J. D. Landis Break Real-Time Monitoring System for Evaluating Long-Term Variability in Methane in Domestic Water Wells in Northeast Pennsylvania: C. Whisman, D. McElreath, B. Smith, C. Olmsted, R. Wardrop, D. Good Lines-of-Evidence for the Investigation of Regional Groundwater Quality in Areas of Active Marcellus Shale Gas Extraction, Pennsylvania, USA: L. J. Molofsky, J. A. Connor, A. S. Wylie, T. Wagner, S. K. Farhat






Experiments to Better Understand Pennsylvania’s Gas Migration Problem: A. Iannacchione, J. Vandenbossche, D. Janssen Use of Remote Sensing Technologies to Detect Surface and Near-Surface Stray Gas Occurrence and Potential Migration Pathways in Tioga County, Pennsylvania: B. J. McKee, C. Beasley Natural Variations of Dissolved Methane in an Area of Accelerating Marcellus Shale Gas Development in North Central West Virginia: S. Sharma, M. L. Mulder, T. R. Carr

3:25 3:45

4:05 4:25


TBD Enrichment Patterns of Various Coexisting Energy Resources and their Correlation in Ordos Basin, NW China: Y. Wang Integrated Geosciences for Optimal Hydraulic Fracturing of Shale Reservoirs: M. H. Tran, Y. N. Abousleiman Settling the Eighth Continent — Three Steps to Mankind’s Colonization of the Moon: B. L. Cutright, W. A. Ambrose Welcome to Barsoom: Bad Martian Astrogeology and Wrong Pubic Perceptions (1870–1970): D. T. King Jr

THEME 6 Porosity Creation in Carbonate Reservoirs through Burial Corrosion and Other Burial and Hydrothermal Processes — “How Important Is It?” (AAPG/SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: P. Wright, P. Harris and J. W. Bishop

THEME 8 Basin Analysis, Sedimentation and Tectonics II (SEPM) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: D. Kamola and C. Jackson

1:15 1:20

1:15 1:20

1:40 2:00

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Introductory Remarks Carbonate Dissolution and Porosity Development in the Burial (Mesogenetic) Environment: V. P. Wright, P. Harris Subsurface Corrosion of Calcite and Dolomite by FaultSourced Hydrothermal Fluids: L. B. Smith How Important is the Impact of Burial Corrosion on Carbonate Reservoirs? Learning’s from Case Studies: C. Taberner Styles of Burial Diagenetic Porosity Modification on the Arabian Plate: C. Hollis, A. Al Hajri Break Porosity-Conservative, Burial-Related Diagenesis and Reservoir Quality: Upper Jurassic Hadriya Reservoir, Berri Field, Saudi Arabia: R. B. Koepnick Burial Cementation and Dissolution in Carboniferous Platform-Top, Slope and Basinal Facies, Tengiz Field, Kazakhstan: J. F. Collins, D. A. Katz, P. Harris, W. Narr Late Burial Dissolution in the Kerendan Carbonate Platform, Oligocene, Central Borneo: A. Saller Evaluating the Role of Meteoric Karst vs. Burial Corrosion in an Offshore Indian Carbonate Field: M. Oates, V. Chandra What Laboratory-Induced Dissolution Trends Tell us About Diagenetic Trends and Reservoir Properties of Carbonate Rocks: T. Vanorio, Y. Ebert, D. Grombacher




2:40 3:25



4:25 THEME 11 Insights on Petroleum Production/Astrogeology (AAPG) Room 407 Co-Chairs: D. Carulli and B. Schuller 1:15 1:20 1:40





Introductory Remarks World Oil Supply In Transition: W. L. Kelley, R. S. Bishop* The Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation Model of Shallow Layers in Sub-Sag, Slope and Salient of Continental Rift Basin: A Case Study of Huanghekou Sag in Bohai Bay Basin: L. Chen, L. Tian, X. Zhou, C. Niu, X. Zeng Reconciling Reported Well Locations in Historic Records of the Trenton Oil and Gas Field of Indiana: C. W. Zuppann, D. Jacob, I. Willett-Jacob, L. Montgrain, C. Dintaman, R. Powell, S. J. Keller Application of Fingerprinting Bacteria DNA in Crude Oil For Evaluating the Reservoir: N. Chegenizadeh, A. Hayatdavoudi*, A. Chistoserdov Break



Introductory Remarks Defining Sequence Stratigraphy, Facies, and Stratal Patterns in Mudrock Systems: Understanding the Controls, Methodologies, and Realities: S. C. Ruppel, H. Rowe Influence of Rift Tectonics on Halokinesis and Deposition of Net-Transgressive Shallow Marine Sandstone Reservoirs: Upper Jurassic, Cod Terrace, Norwegian North Sea: A. Mannie, C. A. Jackson, G. J. Hampson The Miocene Tipping Point: Triggers for Rivers, Deltas, Deepwater Fans, and an Exceptional Global Hydrocarbon Endowment: J. W. Snedden Deltaic and Shallow Marine Sediment Accumulation under Spatially and Temporally Variable Accommodation Associated with Structural Growth: Data from the Cretaceous Frontier Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA: C. Fielding, A. J. Hutsky, T. J. Hurd Break Salt Tectonics and Turbidite Interactions: Miocene Deepwater Depositional Systems, Offshore Angola: A. Oluboyo, R. Gawthorpe, K. Bakke, F. Hadler-Jacobsen Evolution of the Mesozoic Qamdo (Changdu) Basin, Eastern Tibet: Linkages between Sedimentation, Climate, and Regional Tectonics: F. Shang, A. Weislogel, G. Sun Structural Controls on the Development of Eocene Lake Gosiute and Lake Uinta, Southwest Wyoming, Northwest Colorado, and Eastern Utah: R. C. Johnson Sedimentologic and Stratigraphic Effects of Episodic Structural Activity During the Phanerozoic in the Hugoton Embayment, Kansas USA: W. L. Watney, J. Youle, D. E. Hedke, P. Gerlach, R. P. Sorenson, M. K. Dubois, L. Nicholson, T. Hansen, D. Koger, R. Baker Stratigraphy and Petroleum Potential of the Bakken — Three Forks Petroleum System: Northeastern Montana: A. L. Franklin, S. Sonnenberg

THEME 4 Conventional Oil and Gas Fields II (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: R. W. Lynch and E. Rothman 1:15 1:20

Introductory Remarks Expert Systems for Gas Production Prediction from Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells Completed in Shale Gas Reservoirs and Establishing Equivalencies Between Different Hydraulic Fracture Representations: N. Siripatrachai, K. Bodipat, T. Ertekin




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4:25 4:45

Practical Implementation of Stratigraphic Compartmentalization in Turbidite Lobe Reservoirs: A. Bertoncello, R. Mann, B. Kilsdonk Fault Damage Zones-Observations, Dynamic Modeling and Implications on Fluid Flow: M. Johri, M. Zoback, E. M. Dunham, P. Hennings 3-D Near-Wellbore Structural Modeling Based On High Resolution, Logging While Drilling Borehole Image Analysis: An Example From Sichuan Basin, China: Y. Yang, C. Miller, P. Marza, J. Zhao, A. Zhou, Y. Yang Break Core Driven Hierarchical Facies Modeling of Shoreface Environments: A Case Study from Offshore Sabah: S. K. Sharma, M. Chin, T. Basu, R. Bhargava, R. Henson, L. Jiang, M. B. Shuhaimi, L. Vizzini Reducing the Risk of EOR in Early Cretaceous Eolian Sandstone Reservoirs: The Impact of Geological Heterogeneity (Huitrin Formation, Chihuido de la Sierra Negra Field, Neuquen Basin, Argentina): E. Morettini, A. R. Thompson, D. Ancheta, S. Dufour, A. Lopez Gibson, B. Ruyu, M. Valenzuela, M. Delsahd Horizontal Well Technology Applications for Improved Reservoir Depletion, Kern River Oil Field: N. J. Shotts, G. J. McNaboe* Assigning Volumes for Realistic Assessment of Value in Multiple-Lease Prospects or Discoveries: C. D. Norman When Diagenesis Severely Modified Reservoir Characters: A Unique Carbonate Reservoir from Alur Siwah Field, Indonesia: M. Ricardo, I. Y. Syarifuddin, E. Adhitiawan, N. Nurul, M. Miftahurochman, F. F. Baskaraputra, L. Luqman, Y. Yanto, J. C. Lumban Tobing

Monday Afternoon Poster Sessions Presenters in booths: 2:30 p.m.–4:00 p.m. SEPM Student Research Poster Session Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: R. Sarg, A. Husinec and H. E. Harper • The Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary Unit, Deep-Water Gulf of Mexico: Character, Distribution, and Relation to the Chicxulub Impact: J. C. Sanford, J. W. Snedden • Application of CT-Scan Data to the Study of Bioturbation Features in Cores of the New Albany Shale in Indiana: D. Riese, J. Schieber • Floodplain Facies in a Paleo-Coastal Wetland: Cretaceous Ferron-Notom Delta, Utah: O. A. Famubode, J. Bhattacharya • Ichnology and Sedimentology of the Lower Permian Mackellar Formation at Turnabout Ridge and Buckley Island, Beardmore Glacier, Central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), Antarctica: A Shallow Deltaic Marine Environment: A. Jackson, S. Hasiotis, P. Flaig, J. Isbell • Evolution of the Calcareous Nannofossil Genus Biscutum in the Cretaceous: B. Brace, D. Watkins • Linked Evolution of the Holocene Mitchell River Megafan and Delta, Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia: T. I. Lane, R. A. Nanson, B. Ainsworth, B. Vakarelov, K. Amos • Bioerosion of Mesophotic Reefs in the U.S. Virgin Islands: D. K. Weinstein, J. S. Klaus, T. B. Smith, R. P. Reid, W. E. Kiene • A Fluvially Dominated Deltaic System from the Turonian Frontier Formation of the “Vernal Delta” Complex, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah and Colorado: A. Hutsky, C. Fielding • Facies Architecture of Meandering Fluvial Riffle Elements, Ferron Sandstone of Utah: S. T. Anderson, D. R. Kerr • Mixed Fluvial and Loess — Deposits in an Intracontinental Rift Basin, Mid-Permian (Wordian-Capitanian) Quanzijie Low-

• •

Order Cycle, Bogda Mountains, NW China: J. Obrist, W. Yang, Q. Feng Parent Source Material of Calcium Bentonite in Smith County, Mississippi: K. Calhoun, D. W. Schmitz, B. L. Kirkland, J. May Upper Callovian to Oxfordian Muddy Supersequence of Southern Adriatic Platform, Croatia: B. Govoni, A. Husinec, J. Read Sedimentology and Depositional Environments of the Wadesboro Sub-Basin, Eastern Piedmont, North Carolina: Implications for Hydrocarbon Resource Potential: S. Brazell, J. Diemer Dune or Dune-Like Cross-Stratification in Deep-Marine Sandstones of the Neoproterozoic Windermere Supergroup, Cariboo Mountains, British Columbia, Canada: O. Al-Mufti, B. Arnott A Log-based Subsurface Correlation of the D and J Sandstone to Surface Equivalents in Southeastern Colorado: Y. Al-refaei, J. Holbrook

THEME 1 Resource Plays I (AAPG/EMD) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: H. Cander and R. Blood • How Common Are Naturally Occurring Microfractures in Organic-Rich Mudrocks? Observations from Samples Prepared with Ar-Ion Cross-Section Polishing: R. M. Reed • Review of Traditional and New Maturity Indicators — Differences and Complementarities: J. Chatellier, R. Perez • Bottom Current Deposition and Sediment Reworking in the Boquillas/Eagle Ford Fm: Val Verde County, West Texas, USA: G. Frebourg, S. C. Ruppel, R. G. Loucks • A Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for the Mancos Shale, Uinta Basin, UT: Identifying Prospective Intervals within an Emerging Natural Gas Resource: A. McCauley, L. Birgenheier, R. Ressetar • Integration of Depositional Facies and Sequence Stratigraphy in Characterizing Unconventional Reservoirs: Eagle Ford Shale, South Texas: S. Workman, M. Grammer • Sweet Spot Mapping of the Barnett Shale Play, Fort Worth Basin, Texas: Q. Fu, S. Horvath, E. Potter, F. Roberts, S. Tinker, W. Fisher • Modes of Oil Production from Monterey Formation, California: Unconventional or Just Harder to Produce?: M. E. Tennyson • A New Log Evaluation Method to Predict Rich Blocks for Tight Sand Oil: X. Li, C. Zhou, Y. Shi, C. Li • Diagenesis and Reservoir Quality in the Montney Formation in British Columbia – A Major Siltstone Reservoir in Western Canada: N. Vaisblat, N. Harris, J. Zonneveld • Stratigraphy and Petroleum Potential of the Niobrara Formation and underlying Late Cretaceous Mancos Group, Piceance Basin, Northwest Colorado, USA: M. C. Krueger, S. Sonnenberg • Compositional Features of Molecular Compounds of the UltraDeep Condensate Oil, Bohai Bay Basin, China: G. Y. Zhu, G. Zhu, S. Zhang, H. Wang, N. Weng • Hydrocarbon Preservation in Cambrian and Neoproterozoic Petroleum Systems: Potential Risks for the Reward in Conventional and Unconventional Plays: M. A. Everett • Source Rock Reservoirs Present a Unique Petroleum System: K. E. Williams THEME 1 Resource Plays II (AAPG/EMD) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: H. Cander and R. Blood



• New Reserves is An Old Field, The Niobrara Resource Play in the Wattenberg Field, Denver Basin, Colorado: S. Sonnenberg • Surficial Fracture Mapping for Unconventional Reservoirs Rio Puerco Structure, New Mexico: S. M. Reynolds • Upper Devonian – Lower Mississippian Stratigraphy of Northwestern Montana: A Petroleum System Approach: P. Schietinger, S. Sonnenberg • Quasi-Continuous Accumulation: A New Model for Large Tight Oil Field Formation: J. Zhao, Y. Bai, Q. Cao • Genesis and Characteristics of the Lower Triassic Tight Reservoirs, West Slope of Mahu Area, Junggar Basin: L. Yin, G. Wang, Y. Chen, B. Wang, D. Xu, X. Bai, Y. Huang, X. Chen • Emerging Oil Shale Plays in China: Q. Li, M. Chen, F. Wang • Lower Silurian Shale Gas Potential in Chongqing Southwest China: Geological Settings and Characteristics of Longmaxi Formation: Y. Zhu, L. Tan, D. Li • Shale Gas Prospects of Cambay Basin, India: S. Mishra, A. M. Dayal*, D. M. Tiwari, D. J. Patil • Distribution and Controlling Factors of Tight Oil in Deep Continental Fault Lacustrine Basin in East China—A Case Study on Nanpu Depression in Bohaiwan Basin: H. Jiang, S. Hu, Z. Wang, R. Wang, T. Wang, H. Zheng • Alberta’s Unconventional Shale Resource Potential: A. Beaton, D. Rokosh, F. J. Hein* • Geochemical Analysis on Prospective Gas Shale Reservoirs at Perth Basin, Western Australia: H. Jafary Dargahi, R. Rezaee

THEME 5 Alluvial-Fluvial Deltaic-Eolian Siliciclastics I (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. L. Aschoff and B. J. Willis • Modeling Facies Distributions and Heterogeneity in Eolian Reservoir Successions: H. G. Romain, N. Mountney • Controls on Fluvial Sedimentary Architecture in Salt-Walled Mini-basins: S. G. Banham, J. H. Venus, N. Mountney • Development of Metrics to Test Correlation of Patterns in Channel Belt Successions with Shoreline Trajectories: L. Stright, C. L. Johnson, W. Benhallam, A. Turner • Evaluating Process Interpretations of Multistory Fluvial Sand Bodies: E. P. Chamberlin, E. Hajek • Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of the Drip Tank Member of the Straight Cliffs Formation: A New Look at the Leading Nonmarine Models: W. Schellenbach, T. Lawton • Avulsion-Generated Spatio-Temporal Arrangement of Fluvial Sandbodies, Blackhawk Formation, Wasatch Plateau, Utah: H. Sahoo, M. Gani, N. D. Gani, G. J. Hampson, A. Rittersbacher, A. Ranson, J. A. Howell, S. J. Buckley • Distributary Channel Geometry and Sediment Distribution in a Modern, Monsoonal, Mixed-Process Delta, Gulf of Carpentaria, NE Australia: R. A. Nanson, B. Ainsworth, S. E. Dashtgard, T. I. Lane, B. Vakarelov • Extruded or Depositional? Sub-Aqueous Sand Extrusion Dynamics: Discrete to Sheets: J. Ross, J. Peakall, G. M. Keevil • Reconstruction of Channel and Barform Architecture in a Pennsylvanian Fluvio-Deltaic Succession: Brimham Grit, Northern England: R. Soltan, N. Mountney, W. D. McCaffrey, D. A. Paton • Chemostratigraphic Recognition of a Disconformity in Mississippian Strata of the Northeast Appalachians, New Brunswick, Canada: N. Islam, D. Keighley • A Study on Hydrocarbon Accumulation Characteristics of Beach-bar Sandstone: Southern Slope of Dongying Sag, Jiyang Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China: S. Guo, L. Tan, C. Lin, H. Li, X. Lv



THEME 5 Alluvial-Fluvial Deltaic-Eolian Siliciclastics II (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. L. Aschoff and B. J. Willis • Spatial Variability in Eolian Dune and Interdune Morphology in the Rub’Al-Khali Dune Field, Saudi Arabia: Implications for Reservoir Prediction: M. A. Almasrahy, N. Mountney • Effects of Early Eocene Hyperthermal Events and Laramide Tectonics on the Composition of Fluvial Sandstones in the Uinta Basin, UT: E. Jones, P. Plink-Bjorklund • New High-Definition Microelectrical Images Shed Light on Complex Paleozoic Nubian Sandstone Reservoir: E. Haddad, N. El-Defrawy, M. Hussein, A. Hassan, R. J. Laronga, E. Hassan, M. Nassar • The Forebulge Migration and Its Influence on Sequence Stratigraphic Architecture of Back-Bulge in Triassic, Tarim Basin: W. Tang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang • Identification and Prediction of the High Heterogeneous Channel Sand in Southern Turgay Basin: H. Yueying, W. Hongmei*, T. Wenyuan, M. Aling • Shallow-Water, Nonclinoformal Deltaic Systems in Lacustrine Qijia Depression, Songliao Basin, China: H. Zeng, X. Zhu, R. Zhu, Q. Zhang • High-resolution Sequence Stratigraphy and Seismic Sedimentologic Characteristics of a Fluvial Depositional System, Guantao Formation of Lower Neogene, Wuqiang Oilfield, ji*zhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China: L. Jiang, Y. Ji, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhou • The Characterization of the Transgressive Depositional Packages to Aid Reservoir Geometry and Connectivity Prediction: North Kutai Lama Field, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: C. M. Eka Putra, E. Septama* • Identification of Fans and their Petroleum Significance in the Northern Subbasin, Melut Basin: Z. Shi, L. Fang • Quantitative Empirical Relationships for the Prediction of Subsurface Fluvial Sedimentary Architecture: L. Colombera, N. Mountney, W. D. McCaffrey • A Petrophysical Model to Quantify Pyrite Volumes and to Adjust Resistivity Responses to Account for Pyrite Conductivity: M. Holmes, A. Holmes, D. Holmes

THEME 6 Carbonate Reservoirs and New Plays (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. Guidry, C. Steffensen and S. Lepley • Sedimentology, Stratigraphy and Structural Signatures of Eocene-Miocene Carbonates, North Coast, Jamaica: Regional Tectonic Implications and Hydrocarbon Exploration: K. R. Tankoo, S. F. Mitchell, L. Brown • New Constraints for Petroleum Accumulation Models in the Marine Carbonate Strata and Implications for Frontier Petroleum Exploration in China: Z. Jin • Evaluating Ooid Grainstone Geobodies of the Grayburg in the Guadalupe Mountains, NM: A. Parker • Seismic Characterization and Exploration of Karst Cave in Tarim Basin: C. Luo, F. Xue* • Carbonate Hosted Sulfide Mineralization in the Southwest Davis Zinc Field, Southern Oklahoma: N. E. Gentry, J. M. Gregg • Reef Development Distribution and its Controlling Factor in Xisha Offshore: Y. Taotao, L. Fuliang, W. Bin • Tertiary Lacustrine Algal Limestone Mixed Carbonate Reservoir, Qaidam Basin, China: Z. Fan • The Impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis on Exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean; New Insights from Comprehensive

Seismic Facies Analysis of the Messinian Evaporite Complex: H. Allen, A. Fraser, C. Jackson • Characterization of an Oligocene Reservoir in Southeast Kurdistan, Iraq: J. Hsieh, N. Begin, R. Deutscher • The Siluro-Devonian Succession Along the Southern Flank of the Sangamon Arch, Central Illinois: Recent Discoveries and Controls on Reservoir Development: Y. Lasemi • The Other Lower Cretaceous Carbonate Shelf-MarginTrends in the Gulf of Mexico: Winn and Calvin Limestones: R. G. Loucks, P. Sullivan, L. Zahm, C. Kerans THEME 6 Unconventional Carbonate Reservoirs (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: M. Grammer and H. G. Machel • Paleotectonic Controls on Structure in Southern Sand Wash Basin and the Potential Influence on Fracture Orientation and Distribution within the Niobrara Formation: An Integrated Seismic and Geologic Approach: V. Lin, R. Sarg, S. Sonnenberg • Sediment Gravity Flow Deposits in the Avalon Shale Play of the Delaware Basin, West Texas and Southeast New Mexico: D. Stolz, K. Mouton, R. H. Goldstein, E. Franseen, J. Doveton • Stratigraphic Controls on Reservoir Properties, Cretaceous Niobrara Formation, DJ Basin, Colorado: M. Deacon, K. McDonough, L. Brinton, S. Friedman, J. Dunn, R. Lieber • The Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation: An Emerging Unconventional Carbonate Tight Oil Play in the Uinta Basin, Utah: M. D. Vanden Berg, C. D. Morgan, T. C. Chidsey, P. Nielsen • A Novel Workflow for Fracture Characterization and Well Placement using BHI Data in WBM and OBM in Deep Unconventional Reservoirs of North Kuwait: M. Acharya, S. Chakravorty*, S. A. Al-Ajmi, G. K. Joshi, A. Aviantara, Q. Dashti, E. H. Al-Anzi • Compaction Properties of Fine-Grained Carbonate Sediments and Implications for the Bone Spring and Cutoff Formations: G. S. Hurd, C. Kerans, P. Flemings, J. Schneider Reece, X. Janson • Ichnotaphonomy in Dolomitization and Characterization of Mississippian Mudstone Reservoirs: Hydrocarbon Potential and Flow Dynamics in Upper Midale Beds, Weyburn Oilfield, Saskatchewan: A. D. Keswani, S. Pemberton • Depositional Environments of Organic-Rich Calcareous Shale in the Western Anticosti Basin: the Upper Ordovician Macasty Formation, Quebec, Canada: A. R. Kulkarni, K. Hattori, A. Desrochers THEME 9 Exploration in Salt and Deep Water Structural Systems (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Chair: E. Ukar • Modeling the Structural Evolution of East Texas Based Upon Interpretation of Regional 2-D Seismic Lines: O. N. Pearson, J. J. Miller • Secondary Basins and Sediment Pathways in Green Canyon, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: V. Moore, D. Hinton • Evolution of the Jeanne d’Arc Basin, Offshore Newfoundland, Canada: 3-D Seismic Evidence for >100 Million Years of Rifting: B. E. Serrano-Suarez, M. O. Withjack, R. W. Schlische • Salt Tectonics in the Sivas Basin (Turkey): Outstanding Seismic Analogues: J. Ringenbach, J. Salel, C. Kergaravat, C. Ribes, C. Bonnel, J. Callot • Salt Tectonics in the Sivas Basin (Turkey): 3-D Visualization of Minibasins and Salt Diapirs: J. Callot, C. Bonnel, C. Ribes, C. Kergaravat, H. Temiz, J. Ringenbach, J. Salel

• Supra-Salt Extensional Fault Evolution in the Santos Basin (Brazil): A. B. Tvedt, C. A. Jackson, A. Rotevatn, R. Gawthorpe, H. Fossen THEME 9 Fault Analysis and Fault Controlled Traps (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Goode and D. Wolf • Large Scale Echelon Faults on the Shaleitian Uplift in Bohai Oilfield, Offshore Eastern China: T. Lixin, R. Zhang, F. Jianhua, X. Zhou, C. Xu • Strike-slip Duplex Structures: A Case Study from the Bohai Oilfield Offshore Eastern China: C. Xu, R. Zhang, X. Zhou, X. Zhou • The Relationships between “S” Shape Deformation Characteristics of Tan-Lu Fault Zone and the Differences of Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Liaodong Bay: X. Huang, C. Xu, X. Zhou, G. Wei, Z. Zhang, Y. Chai • Characteristics, Mechanism of Faults and Impact on the Trap in Bachu Area of Tarim Basin, NW China: Y. Wang, Z. Zhang • The Control Function of Synsedimentary Faulting on the Tertiary Stratum in Liaozhong Depression, East China: S. Xia • Segment-wise Strike-Slip Fault on Tazhong Northern Slope and Preferential Hydrocarbon Migration — Taking Zhonggu-8 Strikeslip Fault as an Example: J. Zhou, X. Lu, H. Yu, X. Lan • Insights into Evolution of Inverted Normal Fault Systems of the Northwestern Gippsland Basin, Australia from Seismic and Geomechanical Analyses: E. Swierczek, S. Holford, R. King, G. Backe, A. Mitchell • Crossing Conjugate Normal Faults and Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Offshore Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: Y. Yu, X. Zhou, C. Xu • Structural Analysis of the Kingri Fault Utilizing Remote Sensing Techniques; Pakistan: R. Gohar, K. Irfan, A. Sajjad, Q. Abdul • Structural Characteristic of Oblique Convergent Strike-Slip Faulting: A Case Study of The Seram Trough, Indonesia: B. Sapiie, M. Hadiana, A. Kurniawan • Influence of Pre-Existing Strike-Slip Faults on Fault Development During Subsequent Phases of Deformation: C. Putra, R. W. Schlische*, M. O. Withjack • Characteristics and Evolution of a Strike-Slip Fault Zone and its Function on the Control of Petroleum Accumulation: A Case Study from the Tanlu Fault Zone Within the Bohai Bay Basin, China: C. Teng, H. Zou, F. Hao • The Relationships Between Hydrocarbon Accumulation of Neogene Shallow Water Delta and Tanlu Fault Zone in the Huanghekou Sag, Offshore Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: X. Zhang, X. Zhou • The Formation Period of Liaodong Uplift in Liaodong Bay, Bohai, Offshore China: J. Peng, X. Zhou, C. Xu • Transpressional Structures Along the Eastern Flank of the Pamir Salient: Z. Wang, X. Wang THEME 10 VSP, Microseismic, and Rock Physics Methods Relevant to Exploration Geophysics II (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Chair: T. Jordan • Seismic Facies Analysis on the Condition of Sequence and Palaeogeomorphology: P. Liu, X. Zhou, X. Wang, D. Guan, C. Li, H. Zhang, H. Zhang • Identification of Fractured Basem*nt Reservoir Using Integrated Well Data and Seismic Attributes (Case Study at Ruby Field, North West Java Basin, Indonesia): M. Suardana



• The Application of Rock Physics and Pre-Stack AVO Analysis for Gas Identification in Deepwater Sediments, Rakhine Bain, Offshore Myanmar: G. Zuo • The Use of Shallow Subsurface Wells and Collected Multi-offset VSP for Characterizing the Black Warrior Basin: W. C. Harris, A. M. Goodliffe, J. Pashin • River Channel Sand Body Characterization by Integrating Well Logs and Seismic Attributes Analysis in Dense Well Pattern Case Study of Eastern Beierxi Block in SaBei Development Area, Daqing Oilfield, China: S. Xia • Research and Application of Formation Image Analysis Technology in Paleogene Reservoir Prediction, Bohai Bay, China: D. Jifeng • Conduits Characterization for Fractured Reservoirs Using SubSeismic Faults Convergence Intensities Mapping: A. El Fouly • Study for Fissure Eruption of Volcanic Seismic Reservoirology — An Example from Northwest Margin of Junggar Basin: P. Wei, J. Pan, K. Tan, D. Xu • Gene Expression Programming — A Tool to Estimate Sonic Log Distributions and Overpressured Zones: C. Cranganu, E. Bautu • Karst Reservoir Subdivision and Identification on Hydrocarbon Ordovician Formation of Tarim Basin, China: W. Ke, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, H. Jiang

THEME 3 Emerging Oil and Gas Plays Worldwide (AAPG) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: C. G. Willan and C. Eckert 8:00 8:05


8:45 9:05 9:25 10:10


Tuesday Morning Oral Sessions

THEME 1 The Bakken Petroleum System (AAPG/EMD) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Co-Chairs: M. D. Sonnenfeld and S. G. Crews 8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10 10:30





Introductory Remarks The Sequence Stratigraphy and Production Potential of the Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation: S. Sonnenberg, R. Johnson* Characterization for Source Rock Potential of the Bakken Shales in the Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana: H. Jin, S. Sonnenberg Parshall Field: Inferences From New Data Regarding Bakken Hydrocarbon Generation and Migration: J. Newman, J. Edman*, J. LeFever, J. Howe Reassessment of Undiscovered Resources in the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana: S. Gaswirth, K. Marra, T. Cook Break Influencing Productivity in the Bakken Play, Williston Basin: C. Theloy, S. Sonnenberg Integrated Hydrocarbon Geochemical Characterization and Pore Size Distribution Analysis for Bakken Shales, Williston Basin, USA: T. Zhang, J. Wiggins-Camacho, S. C. Ruppel, X. Sun Predicting Natural Fractures in Unconventional Reservoirs: Examples of Data Validation Techniques From the Bakken System, Mountrail County, North Dakota: S. J. Buckner, R. Nelson, S. Bayer, F. A. Lozano, J. Chen, F. Rasdi Sedimentology and Petroleum Potential of the Devonian/ Mississippian Three Forks and Bakken Formations and Equivalent Strata in Central and Western Montana: M. H. Hofmann, M. S. Hendrix, T. Nagase Assessing Undiscovered Resources in the Devonian Three Forks Formation, Williston Basin, USA: K. Marra, S. Gaswirth, T. Cook





Introductory Remarks The Gulf of Mexico Basin: A Natural Laboratory of Sedimentary Processes, New and Evolving Exploration Plays, and New Insights on the Mesozoic Framework: J. W. Snedden, W. E. Galloway, C. Fulthorpe, P. E. Ganey-Curry, J. Xu, J. C. Sanford, I. Norton, T. L. Whiteaker, H. C. Olson, R. Cunningham Sandstone Trends, Sequence Framework, and Depositional Settings of the Upper Cretaceous Woodbine Group: “Eaglebine” Play, Southern East Texas Basin: T. F. Hentz, W. A. Ambrose Evaluation of the Tyler Formation, Williston Basin, Western North Dakota: I. M. Stevanovic The Western Utah Fold-Thrust Belt: A Frontier Petroleum Province: D. M. Herring, D. C. Greene Break The Final North America Conventional Oil Frontier: The Intracratonic Hudson Bay Basin in the Canadian Arctic: D. Lavoie, N. Pinet, J. Dietrich, B. P. Kohn, S. Zhang, K. Hu, D. Armstrong, M. Nicolas, E. Asselin, R. Bertrand, M. J. duch*esne, V. Decker, J. Galloway, J. Reyes, V. Brake Angola’s Deep and Ultra Deep Water Potential: C. Abu, N. Herbst, M. Francis, G. Milne, G. Brown, M. Inkollu The Identification and Implication of Injectites in the Shwe Gas Field, Offshore Northwestern Myanmar: S. Cossey, D. Kim*, S. Yang, H. Jung Emerging Play Types and Structural Styles in the Equatorial Atlantic Transform Margin of Africa; Case Studies from Deep-Water Ghana and Ivory Coast Basins: O. S. Matthew, O. Ajayi, H. Adigwe Continental Margins of the Equatorial South Atlantic: R. Fainstein, W. Ueipass Mohriak

THEME 5 SEPM Research Symposium-Depositional Systems and Sedimentology of Shale and Tight-Sand Reservoirs I Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: B. Zempolich, A. Carroll and S. Egenhoff 8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10


Introductory Remarks Geochemical Characterization of Stratigraphic Sequences in the Horn River Shale, Middle and Upper Devonian, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada: T. Dong, M. Kennedy, N. Harris A Geochemical Analysis of Five Late Middle Pennsylvanian Cores (Carbondale Group) From the Illinois Basin, Southern Indiana: C. M. Broach, W. P. Gilhooly, W. S. Elliott, C. Smith A Geochemical and Mineralogical Investigation of Parasequences in the Camp Run Member of the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale: S. Spencer, J. Schieber Three Scales of Sequence Stratigraphy in the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale and Associated Strata: D. Kohl, R. Slingerland, M. Arthur, T. Engelder Break The Eagle Ford Outcrops of West Texas: A Laboratory for Understanding Heterogeneities, As Well As Sequence Stratigraphic Controls, on Unconventional Mudstone Reservoirs: A. D. Donovan, T. Staerker, A. Pramudito, M. J. Corbett, C. M. Lowery, A. M. Romero, R. Gardner Regional Outcrop to Subsurface Correlation of the Montney Formation: An Evolving Understanding of Lower


11:10 11:30

Mesozoic Tectono-stratigraphic Evolution in western Canada: J. Zonneveld, T. F. Moslow High Frequency Sequence Stratigraphic Surfaces and Associated Reservoir Facies in Lower Cretaceous Ratawi Shale Formation in Kuwait: S. K. Tanoli Characterization of the Union Springs Formation, Finger Lakes Region, NY: C. Karaca, T. E. Jordan The Relative Roles of Channel Types and Facies for Reservoir Characterization in Fluvial Tight-Gas Sands, Upper Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado: B. McDowell, P. Plink-Bjorklund

THEME 10 3-D Seismic Attribute Method-based Interpretations Relevant to Stratigraphic and Fault Geometry of Hydrocarbon Accumulations (AAPG) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: J. R. Morris and B. Lipinski 8:00 8:05



9:05 9:25 10:10


10:50 11:10


Introductory Remarks Using Geological Expression to Extract Geohazards: An Example from the Barnett Shale, Ft. Worth Basin, Texas: R. Martin, M. Halpin, T. Wooltorton* 3-D Surface Seismic Attribute and Prestack Impedance Inversion Characterization of the Red Fork Formation, Oklahoma, USA: Y. Del Moro, A. Fernandez, S. Verma, K. Marfurt Griffon Vultures, Golden Eagles and Buzzards: Integration of Reconnaissance AVO, EEI Attributes & PreSDM to De-Risk a Flight of Prospects, Greater Buzzard Area, UKCS: D. M. Dutton, L. Lu Seismic Attribute Expression of Differential Compaction: S. Chopra, K. Marfurt Break Petroelastic Seismic Inversion for Reservoir Modeling in the Vienna Basin: M. Koenig, E. Angerer, E. Rieser, R. Korinek Pre-Stack Data Prediction for Fluvial Reservoirs: Y. Yuelong, C. Hongtao, L. Yuhai, L. Tinghui, L. Bingling, B. Yuhua, S. Huimin Shale Gas Reservoir Characterization Workflows: S. Chopra, R. Sharma, J. Keay, K. Marfurt Reservoirs Characterizing Based on Spectral Difference Anomaly at Lower-Frequency on Multi-Angle Stacking Gathers: Case Studies from China: X. Chen, W. Zhong, Z. He Increasing Confidence of Seismic Derived Reservoir Parameters From a Large 3-D Merge: C. Skidmore, P. Porter, A. Porter, R. Early


9:05 9:25 10:10





THEME 6 Modern Carbonates (SEPM) Room 407 Co-Chairs: C. Kerans, E. Franseen and C. Iannello Bachtel 8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10

10:30 THEME 6 The Great American Carbonate Bank — Geology and Economic Resources of the Cambro-Ordovician Sauk Megasequence (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: W. A. Morgan, C. Sternbach, R. Fritz, J. Derby and S. Longacre 8:00 8:05 8:25

Introductory Remarks Sequence Stratigraphy of the Great American Carbonate Bank: W. A. Morgan Before the Great North American Carbonate Bank: A Complex Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Transgressive History Recorded in Siliciclastic Strata of the Potsdam Group, Southeast Laurentia: D. G. Lowe, B. Arnott

The Great American Bank in Eastern Canada — A Synthesis: D. Lavoie, A. Desrochers, G. Dix, I. Knight, O. Salad Hersi The Great American Carbonate Bank in the GreenlandScotland Sector: Death, Life and Birth: P. Smith, R. Raine* Break Digital Outcrop Model of Stratigraphy and Breccias of the Southern Franklin Mountains, El Paso, Texas: J. A. Bellian, C. Kerans, J. Repetski Petroleum Resources of the Great American Carbonate Bank (GACB) – Lessons from Heterogeneous Ellenburger, Arbuckle, Knox, Prairie du Chien and Beekmantown Reservoirs, Diverse Traps, Unconformity Thinking: C. Sternbach The Geology of the Arbuckle Group in the Mid-Continent: Sequence Stratigraphy, Reservoir Development and the Potential for Hydrocarbon Exploration: R. D. Fritz, P. Medlock, M. Kuykendal, J. L. Wilson Effects, Influences and Controls of Sedimentology, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Paleogeography and Diagenesis on Hydrocarbon and Mineral Accumulations in the CambrianOrdovician Knox Group in Kentucky: P. J. Gooding Mississippi Valley-Type Ore Deposits in the CambrianOrdovician Great American Carbonate Bank: J. M. Gregg, K. L. Shelton


11:10 11:30

Introductory Remarks Complex Patterns of Carbonate Sediment Deposition and Accretion Controlled by Suborbital Sea-Level Oscillations: K. L. Jackson, G. Eberli, S. B. Reid, P. Harris, K. L. Maier, D. F. McNeill Multi-Scale Geocellular Models of a Holocene Bahaman Oolitic Tidal Bar Belt: How Geologic Resolution Impacts Simulation Studies: J. Rush, E. C. Rankey, Y. Holubnyak A Comparative Study of the Origin of Carbonate Mud in Reefs and Carbonate Platforms Using Modern Samples From the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans: E. Gischler, S. Dietrich Back-Barrier Sediment Dynamics: A Major Control on Modeling Sediment Properties, Cyclicity and Depositional Profiles: Examples from the Arid Coastline of Qatar: J. Jameson, C. J. Strohmenger Break Carbonate Ramp Shoreface Coquina and Lagoonal Systems: Holocene of Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico: E. C. Rankey, R. Garza-Perez, M. Naranjo-García Variability of Slope Morphology and Processes Along Southwestern Great Bahama Bank: A. Jo, G. P. Eberli, M. Grasmueck Insights into Quaternary Depositional and Diagenetic Processes on a Caribbean Atoll: N. J. Van Ee, G. P. Eberli, F. Anselmetti, P. Swart, E. Gischler The Contemporary Red Sea as an Analog for Ancient Carbonates in Rift Settings: S. J. Purkis, P. Harris, J. Ellis Ichnologically Influenced Porosity on a Holocene Isolated Platform: M. Mary, E. C. Rankey, T. Uriam

THEME 5 Sedimentology, Geomorphology & Stratigraphy of Coastal, Estuarine, and Nearshore Systems (SEPM) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: D. Kamola, M. Fenster and M. Gani



8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10





Introductory Remarks Challenge the Norms: Fluvial Channel in Shallow Marine Environment. Is it Possible? A Case Study of A-1 Well in Central Luconia, Offshore Sarawak, Malaysia – An Integrated Approach Combining Seismo-Stratigraphy and Seismic Attributes Analysis: S. S. Wafa, M. S. Mustafa, K. A. Kamarudzaman, D. H. Sapri, O. A. Mahmud Distribution and Dimensions of Reservoir Elements and Baffles in Shallow-Marine Reservoirs: C. H. Eide, J. A. Howell, S. J. Buckley Denver Basin Isolated Sandbodies: Signature of Dynamic Subsidence, Laramide Uplifts and Shoreline Transitions: P. Plink-Bjorklund, L. Kiteley Regional Tectonics, Sedimentary Processes and Global Oceanography in the Formation of a World-Class Reservoir: Insights From the Johan Sverdrup Giant Oilfield, Norway: M. Vigorito, O. J. Martinsen, A. Nødtvedt, Skjæveland, A. Gregersson, R. Martin, J. Windelstad, S. Jørgenvåg, M. Fjelland, T. Ferstad Break Geomorphology, Facies Character and Stratigraphic Architecture of an Ancient Sand-Prone Subaqueous Delta: Upper Jurassic Sognefjord Formation, Troll Field, Offshore Norway: S. Patruno, G. J. Hampson, C. Jackson Sequence-Stratigraphic and Depositional Framework of Wave-Influenced Deltaic Systems in the Lower and Middle Frio Formation, Redfish Bay, Corpus Christi, Texas: J. Zhang, W. A. Ambrose, M. I. Olariu Ancient Backwaters and Baylines: Slope Magnitude and its Control on Deltaic Facies Partitioning in Ancient Deltaic Systems: J. Bhattacharya Mud-Bed Thicknesses, Distributions and Cyclicity Along Channel Margins Across the Tidal-Fluvial Transition, Lower Fraser River, BC, Canada: A. D. La Croix, S. E. Dashtgard, J. A. MacEachern Paleosols of the Upper Devonian Foreknobs Formation of Western Virginia and Eastern West Virginia: D. O. Terry, W. McClung, K. A. Eriksson

THEME 7 Water Risks and Mitigation Strategies in Unconventional Development (DEG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: S. Sharma and B. W. Stewart 8:00 8:05 8:25



9:25 10:10


Introductory Remarks Evolving Water Management Practices in Shale Gas Development: D. J. Soeder, R. S. Rodriguez* Using Strontium Isotopes to Test Stratigraphic Isolation of Injected and Formation Waters During Hydraulic Fracturing: C. A. Kolesar, R. C. Capo, A. J. Wall, B. W. Stewart, K. Schroder, R. W. Hammack Using Stable Isotopes to Detect Potential Inter-Formation Mixing of Fluids and Gases Following the Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale Wells at NETLs Greene County Test Site in Southwestern Pennsylvania: S. Sharma, A. Sack, L. Bowman, K. Schroder, R. W. Hammack Microseismic Monitoring to Determine Fracture Height Growth During Hydraulic Fracturing at NETL’s Marcellus Shale Test Site in Greene County, Pennsylvania: R. W. Hammack, W. Harbert*, J. Sams, H. Siriwardane Break Use of Perfluorocarbon Tracers to Detect Possible Upward Migration of Gas and Fluids From Hydraulically Fractured Marcellus Shale Wells at NETL’s Greene County Test Site in Southwestern Pennsylvania: A. W. Wells, R. Diehl, R. W. Hammack






Geochemical Evolution of Flowback and Produced Water From Marcellus Shale Wells in Southwest Pennsylvania: E. L. Rowan, M. Engle, T. F. Kraemer δ7Li of Saline Water: Northern Appalachian Basin and Gulf Coast Sedimentary Basin, USA: G. L. Macpherson, R. C. Capo, B. W. Stewart, T. Phan, K. Schroder, R. W. Hammack Organic Substances in Produced and Formation Water From Natural Gas Production in Coal and Shale: W. H. Orem, C. A. Tatu, M. Varonka, J. Pashin, M. Engle Effect of Impoundment Management Strategies on Microbial Communities and the Fate of Radionuclides: K. Gregory, A. Murali Mohan, R. A. Vidic

Tuesday Morning Poster Sessions Presenters in booths: 9:00 a.m.–10:30 a.m. Additional AAPG Student Research Poster Session Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. A. Waters and W. Hottman • Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Deformation at North AmericanCaribbean Plate Boundary in Northern Central America and its Effects on the Origin and Migration of Hydrocarbons: C. J. Sanchez, P. Mann, P. A. Emmet • Fluvial Geomorphology Changes Linked to Tectonic Effects during the Late Eocene-Oligocene in the Northern Llanos Foreland Basin of Colombia: L. Torrado, P. Mann, J. Bhattacharya • Crustal Structure of the Central Atlantic Rifted-Passive Margin from South Carolina to the Southeastern Bahamas: A First Step to Understand its Petroleum Potential: A. Dale, P. Mann, D. Bird • Modeling Falling Stage Topset Aggradation and Shoreline Trajectories: Implications for Distinguishing Forced and Unforced Regressions in the Ancient Record: G. Prince, P. Burgess • Origin and Composition of Fluids Responsible for Fault Controlled Dolomitization on the Hammam Faraun Fault Block, Gulf of Suez, Egypt: J. Hirani, H. Corlett, A. Eker, R. Gawthorpe, D. Hodgetts, C. Hollis, A. Rotevatn • Investigation of the Regional Extent and Controlling Factors of Residual Oil Zones in the Permian Basin: L. M. West • Integrated Sedimentary Geochemistry of a Cretaceous Potential Shallow Shale Gas Reservoir, Western Manitoba, Canada: S. Hosseininejad, P. Pedersen, R. Spencer, M. Nicolas • Facies Architecture, Depositional Environments, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Marble Falls Formation (Morrowan-Atokan), Central Texas: S. G. Wood, S. C. Ruppel, R. G. Loucks • Variations in Depocenter Style Under Mid-Late Jurassic SaltInfluenced Rifting: Norwegian Central Graben, North Sea: Z. Ge, R. Gawthorpe, A. Rotevatn, J. Wonham • Depositional Analysis of the Jurassic Norphlet Formation in Mississippi: Impact on Petroleum Potential Offshore: M. L. Jessee, A. Weislogel • The Lateral Variability of Sequence Boundaries: A Regional 3-D Seismic Case Study from the Late Cenozoic Southern North Sea: R. Harding, M. Huuse, R. Gawthorpe • Characterization of Thickness Anomalies Within the Three Forks and Bakken Formations, North Central North Dakota, USA: D. G. Cobb, S. Sonnenberg • Integrated Stratigraphic and Structural Evolution of a FluvialDominated, Tide-Influenced Marginal Marine System, the North Malay Basin, Gulf of Thailand: K. Kumnerdsiri, B. Ainsworth, A. Mitchell, G. Backe • Return to the Source: Mapping the Microstructure of Organic Matter and Pores in the Utica Shale: M. Murphy, D. R. Cole, J. Daniels, J. Sheets, S. Welch, A. M. Swift, D. Huber, J. Sosa

• Fracture Identification and Analysis Using Seismic Attributes in Carbonate Reservoirs: Cimarrona Formation, Middle Magdalena Valley Basin, Colombia: J. M. Blanco, C. E. Padrón, H. I. Contreras • Depositional Controls on the Distribution of Permian Phylloid Algal Bioherms in the Orogrande Basin, South Central New Mexico: J. E. Stautberg, K. Giles, G. Mack • Applying GigaPan Robotoc Photo-Panorama Technology to Enhance Facies and Architectural Analyses of the Upper Cretaceous Schrader Bluff and Prince Creek Fms at Shivugak Bluffs, North Slope of Alaska, USA: D. A. van der Kolk, P. P. Flaig, S. Hasiotis, L. J. Wood • Structural Geology and Depositional Environments of the Mardin Group Carbonates in the Cemberlitas Oil Field in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey: O. Mulayim, I. Cemen • Structural Evolution and Petroleum Potential of Putumayo Foreland Basin, Colombia, From Subsurface Mapping and 3-D Flexural Modeling: L. F. Pachon, P. Mann, N. Cardozo • Petroleum Potential of Onland Basins in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) Based on Integration of Vintage Well and Seismic Reflection Data with Geochemical Data: J. Osmond, P. Mann, S. Pierce • Regional Source-to-Sink Systems within Intra-Continental Rifts: The Importance of Fluvial Connectivity and Drainage Integration: J. Smith, R. Gawthorpe, S. H. Brocklehurst, E. Finch • Exploration Significance of the Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution of the Eastern Benin Basin, Offshore Nigeria: I. A. Etobro, M. P. Watkinson, M. W. Anderson • A Fault Re-Activation Study in Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: A Coupled Modeling Approach: J. Brown, B. Hornby, M. Zoback • Structural Geology of the Arkoma Basin-Frontal Ouachita Transition Zone, Waldron and Boles Quadrangles, Scott County, Western Arkansas: D. Yezerski, I. Cemen • Thrust Faults and Pressure of Overpressure Formations in the South Junggar Thrust-and-Fold Belt, China: L. Wang, G. Yang, W. Li, X. Wang, B. Li • Geostatistical Integration of Core and Well Log Data for HighResolution Reservoir Modeling: K. Burch, J. Lee • Evolution of the Northern End of Salt Valley Salt Wall, Northern Paradox Basin, SE Utah: M. Naqi, B. D. Trudgill, C. F. Kluth • Using Seismic Expression of Contourite Drifts to Understand Mud-Dominated Depositional Systems: Insights from the Newfoundland Ridge, Offshore Canada: P. R. Boyle, B. W. Romans, I. Scientists • Facies and Facies Architecture of Allomembers D and E, Upper Cretaceous Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Drumheller, Alberta, Canada: A. Montgomery, S. E. Dashtgard, J. A. MacEachern, B. Ainsworth, L. Ricci Additional SEPM Student Research Poster Session Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: R. Sarg, A. Husinec and H. E. Harper • Variability of Fan-Shaped Depositional Systems of the 4th Member of Eocene Shahejie Formation in Minfeng Half Graben, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: Z. Li, W. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Luo, S. Liu, H. Luo • Late Pleistocene Sediment Dynamics in the Southern Galician Margin Gully System: A. Petrovic, T. Hanebuth, H. Lantzsch, V. Bender • GPR Imaging of Riffle Elements in Meandering Channel-fill of the Ferron Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), Emery County, Utah: O. Abatan, D. R. Kerr, K. Ramachandran • Bio-magneto-chronology of Middle Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera: S. Hilding-Kronforst, B. Wade • Assessment of Reservoir Quality and Potential Impact of Sequestered Carbon Dioxide in Reservoir Units of Diverse

Lithologies in South-Central, Mississippi, USA: A. D. Degny, B. L. Kirkland, D. W. Schmitz • A Lithostratigraphic Examination of the K-T Boundary in Northwestern South Dakota: J. Testin • Integrated Seismology, Correlation of Seismic and Seismological Data of Baska Block Pakistan: M. S. Ali

THEME 1 Unconventionals I (EMD/AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Tellers and P. Sullivan • Pressure Coring – A New Tool for Unconventional Oil & Gas Characterization: M. R. Wood, J. Sinclair, M. Bjorum • Unconventional Applications of Archie: Does Geology Matter?: D. Hartigan, M. Lovell, S. Davies • Accurate Quantitative Mineralogy in Gas Shales Based on Integrating Multiple Chemical and Physical Measurements with XRD Analyses: Improvement From Use of SEM µ-XRF Chemical Analysis: C. Fialips, J. Laurent, B. Labeyrie, V. Burg, P. Simeone, T. Kinderstuth, J. Girard, J. Kluska, F. Umbhauer • Isotope Rollover in Shale Gas Observed in Laboratory Pyrolysis Experiments: Insight to the Role of Water in Thermogenesis of Mature Gas: L. Gao, A. Schimmelmann, Y. Tang, B. J. Katz, M. Mastalerz • Accurate, Direct Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Log from a New Advanced Geochemical Spectroscopy Tool: Comparison with Conventional Approaches for TOC Estimation: A. Charsky, S. Herron • Evaluation of the Unconventional Basem*nt Reservoir of Kharir, Yemen: Insight from Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS): J. Girard, J. Kluska, J. Champanhet • Core-Based Geochemical Study of Mudrocks in Basinal Lithofacies in the Wolfberry Play, Midland Basin, Texas: R. W. Baumgardner, H. Hamlin • Fecal Pellets and their Significance in Unconventional Resource Shales: Part II: Generation of Hydrocarbons: E. J. Torres, R. Philp, T. Wang, R. M. Slatt, N. O’Brien • Enhancing SEM Grayscale Images Through Pseudocolor Conversion: Examples from Eagle Ford, Haynesville and Marcellus Shales: W. Camp • Geomechanical Interpretation of a ‘Simul-Frac’ in Bakken Shale: Q. Li, M. Chen, F. Wang, Y. Jin • Experimental Study of Fracture Interaction between Natural Fractures and Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Reservoir: Q. Li, M. Chen, Y. Jin • Review and Improvement of Brittleness Evaluation Methods in Shale Gas Reservoir: Q. Li, M. Chen, Y. Jin, F. Wang • Soft Inorganic Geochemistry: A New Concept for Unconventional Resources Modeling: C. N. Larriestra • Characterization of Fractured Basem*nt Reservoir, Melut Basin, Southeast Sudan: M. A. Yassin, M. M. Hariri, O. M. Abdullatif, M. H. Makkawi

THEME 1 Unconventionals II (EMD/AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Tellers and P. Sullivan • An Overview About Coal Water Mixture (CWM) as New Unconventional Energy Potency, and Indonesia Coal Fields for Case Studies: R. R. Putra, J. S. Alibazah, D. F. Umar • Potential for Petroleum Production in Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Paleovalleys in the Main Consolidated Field (Crawford County,



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Illinois) and Application throughout the Illinois Basin: J. London, A. Reeder, M. T. May Geochemical Controls on Gas Adsorption and Preservation in Organic-Rich Shale Systems: T. Zhang, K. L. Milliken, S. C. Ruppel, X. Sun Global Heavy Oil and Oil Sand Resources: H. Wang Fractured & Weathered Basem*nt Reservoirs – Best Practices for Exploration and Production: Examples from USA, Venezuela and Brazil: T. Koning Application of Combined Cuttings Gas/Oil Analysis, Rapid XRF and High Resolution Photography to Evaluation of Unconventional Reservoirs: D. L. Hall, M. Sterner A Way of Finding Proxy for TOC and Brittleness in Tight Gas Shales: S. Verma, K. Marfurt An Integrated Approach Using Geotechnology to Unlock the Secrets of Low Permeability Reservoirs: S. Sadykhov, A. Collamore, M. Guidry*, W. Palmer, C. Harrison Adapting Petroleum Systems Analysis to Evaluate Play Fairways and “Sweet Spots” in Unconventional Resources: J. E. Leonard, E. C. Heydweiller, C. O. Leonard, G. Lash Probabilistic Seismic Facies Estimation of a Mississippian Tripolitic Chert Reservoir through Generative Topographic Mapping: A. Roy, T. J. Kwiatkowski, K. Marfurt Big Clifty Sandstone Reservoir Characterization in Warren County Kentucky: L. Baizel, K. Butler, A. Reeder, J. London, M. T. May Production-Active Pore Systems – The Pores That Matter: J. M. Evensen Influence of Rock Texture and Composition on Anisotropic Geomechanical Properties in the Eagle Ford Formation: T. Kosanke, R. Rosen, M. Sharf-Aldin, S. Narasimhan, M. Paiangle Burial History Modeling and Paleogeomechanics of the Barnett and Haynesville: K. E. Williams The Evolution of Petrophysics in Evaluating Unconventional Reservoirs in the Cooper Basin: Preliminary Results for the First Commercial Shale Gas Well in Australia: M. Vallee

THEME 3 Applied Technologies for Regional Play Analysis (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: T. B. Warner and D. Deemer • Importance of Assessing Risk and Volume Relationships in Multiple-Target Exploration Prospects: C. D. Norman • Offshore East Africa Fan Chronostratigraphy from WheelerTransformed Seismic Data, ION GeoVentures East AfricaSPAN: K. McDonough, E. Bouanga, C. Pierard, B. Horn, J. Gross, A. Danforth, N. Sterne, J. Granath, P. Emmet • Evidence for Expulsion of Hydrocarbons From Early Mesozoic Source Rocks: Deepwater, Tanzania: D. L. Connolly, N. Hemstra • Confirmation of Hydrocarbon Shows in the Mobil #3 Offshore Hyde County Well, North Carolina: J. L. Coleman, J. C. Reid, D. L. Hall • Risk Reduction through Neural Networks Chimney Analysis: Frontier Exploration in East African Rift Basin: V. Baranova, A. Mustaqeem, F. Karaja, D. Mburu • Worldwide Trends in the Discoveries of Giant Fields from 200612 with Predictions on the Locations and Numbers of Future Giants: P. Mann, N. Dowla • Petroleum Accumulation in Passive Margin Basins: G. Zhang, Y. Liang*

THEME 4 Conventional Oil and Gas Fields (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: H. Ramsey and N. Vander Griend



• Reservoir Modeling Using Multi-Point Statistics (MPS), Berkine Basin, Algeria: J. F. Delgado, F. Djettou, B. Noureddine, H. Hachelaf, Z. Kerboub • The Role of Matrix and Fractures on Appalachian Basin Upper Devonian Gas Production: A. Douds, S. McCallum • Quantitative Seismic Reservoir Architecture Analysis of Tertiary Fluvial System In The Onshore Bohai Bay Basin China: R. Zhai, S. Wu, Z. Fan, H. Zhang • Cretaceous Volcanism and Development of Hydrocarbon Pools in and Around Peninsular India: K. S. Misra, A. Misra • The Columbia River Basalt Group: A Volcanic Reservoir Analog: J. Jackson • Comprehensive Prediction of Favorable Gas Reservoir in the Large-scale Tight Sandstone of Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Anyue-Hechuan Area of Sichuan Basin, China: A. Xu, Z. Wang, C. Bian, Z. Xu, Y. Li, X. Zhai • SHRIMP U-Pb Ages of Detrital Zircons: Discussions on Provenance Control and the Red River Capture: Q. Xu, W. Zhu, Y. Wang, D. Li, Y. Wang, H. Zhuo • Production-Induced Capillary Breakdown of Reservoir Barriers: A. A. Brown • Late Stage Hydrocarbon Accumulation and Enrichment Pattern in Liaozhong Sag, Northern Offshore Bohai Bay Basin, East China: K. Qiang, X. Lü, X. Zhou, C. Xu • The Reserve Growth Model of Oil Fields in the Bohai Bay Basin, China: C. Liu, Z. Wang • Sealing Mechanism for Cap Beds of Shallow Biogenic Gas Pools in Late Quaternary Deposits of The Qiantang River Incised Valley, Eastern China: L. C. Ming, Z. Xia, Q. C. Wei, W. S. Jun • Characteristics of Neogene Tan-Lu Faults and Its Role in Controlling Young Traps: An Extreme Case of the Eastern Offshore Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China: Q. Kun-sheng, X. Lu, X. Zhou • Faults in Carbonate and Their Controls on the Distribution of Karst Reservoir — A Case Study of Halahatang Field in Tarim Basin, China: L. Zhang, G. Zhang • New Insight into the Strike-Slip Tectonic Control on the Penglai 19-3 Field in the Tan-Lu Fault Zone, East China: L. Huang, X. Zhou, Y. Wang, A. Wei, T. Liu • The Origin Characteristic of Natural Gas in Permian Changxing and Triassic Feixianguan Formations in Sichuan Basin, SW China: T. Wang, X. Li, Q. Li, Q. Jiang, Y. Li • Quantitative Prediction Methods of the Thin Interbedded Beach-Bar Sandstone in Lacustrine Basin: X. Wei, Z. Jiang, L. Yifan • The Thermal Evolution Indicated by Integrated Methods: Implication for Source Rocks Maturation and Petroleum Prospective in the Meso-Cenozoic Basins of the Tibetan Plateau: H. Chen, Y. Wu • Research on Architecture Pattern of Deepwater Turbidity Channel in X Oilfield of Neogene, West Africa: Y. Lin, S. Wu, Y. Lu, Q. Wan, J. Zhang

THEME 5 Deep Water Siliciclastics I (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Covault and B. Romans • Along-Strike Variability of Morphology and Sedimentation of the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea: H. Zhuo, Y. Wang, Q. Xu, D. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang • Examples of Turbidity Current Channelization in the Modern Seafloor: Environments, Causes and Products: F. Gamberi, G. Dalla Valle, M. Rovere

• The Relationships Between Shelf-Edge Trajectories and SlopeFacies Associations: Useful Predictors of Sand Delivery to Deepwater Areas: C. Gong, Y. Wang, W. Zhu, Q. Xu, D. Li, W. Li • Stratigraphic Architectures of Punctuated Deepwater Channel Migration, Upper Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation, Magallanes Basin, Chile: N. C. Auchter, B. W. Romans, S. M. Hubbard, L. Stright • 3-D Mapping of Vertical and Lateral Facies Heterogeneity of a Compound, Tributive Incised Valley, Turonian Ferron Sandstone, Notom Delta, South-Central Utah: B. D. Hilton, J. Bhattacharya, S. Khan, C. Griffen, K. Biber • Study of Calcite Cement in Submarine Fan Complex in the Lower Cherry Canyon, Delaware Basin, TX: S. Chakraborty • Influence of Large-Scale Remobilizations on Deepwater Reservoir Architecture: An Example from the Britannia Field, North Sea: R. Teloni, W. D. McCaffrey, P. Haughton, M. Patacci, J. T. Eggenhuisen, R. Butler • “Solving a Puzzle” — An Integrated Approach to Revitalize a Neogene Turbidite Play in SW Pannonian Basin, Hungary: A. Nemeth, M. Vincze • Three Depositional Models of Deep-water Gravity Flow System of Late Ordovician in Tarim Basin, Western China: J. Liu, C. Lin • The Paleo-Morphology of Passive Margins and Its Controls on Deep-Water Systems: A Case Study From the Pearl River Month Basin, Northern South China Sea: Y. Wang, W. Zhu, Q. Xu, Y. Wang, C. Gong, H. Zhuo, W. Li • Stratigraphic Architectures and Evolution of the Central Canyon System in the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea: Z. Wang, X. Xie, D. Zhang, X. Li, Z. Sun, Y. He

Tuesday Afternoon Oral Sessions THEME 1 The Eagle Ford Petroleum System (EMD/AAPG) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Co-Chairs: H. Rowe and S. C. Ruppel 1:15 1:20




2:40 3:25


4:05 THEME 5 Deep Water Siliciclastics II (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Covault and B. Romans • The Sedimentary Characteristics of the Central Canyon in the Deepwater Area, Qiongdongnan Basin: D. Zhang, Y. Wang, Q. Zuo, Z. Wang, W. He • A Most Complete and Continuous Early Pennsylvania Sequence Stratigraphy Framework Near Kirby, Arkansas, USA and Its Implication on Global Remnant Basin Tectonics and Deepwater Hydrocarbon E&P Activities: F. Zou, R. M. Slatt • Sedimentary Facies in the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa Group of Indiana: A Preliminary Analysis: D. Mizsei, J. Schieber • Basin Accommodation Analysis: Integrative Sand Prediction, Deep Water Gulf of Mexico: J. Blackerby, J. W. Cross, C. Mornet, X. Wu • Matrix-Rich Sandstones in Base-of-Slope and Basin-Floor Strata of the Neoproterozoic Windermere Supergroup: Hydraulic Jump Deposits and the Initiation of Local Sedimentation: V. Terlaky, B. Arnott • Transitional and Composite Flow Deposits: Character and Distribution in the Maastrichtian Springar Fm., Vøring Basin, Norwegian Sea: S. J. Southern, I. A. Kane, M. Warchol, K. W. Porten, W. D. McCaffrey, N. Mountney • The Stratigraphic Architecture Preserved at the Channel-Lobe Transition Zone: Tres Pasos Formation Outcrop Belt, Southern Chile: E. Pemberton, S. M. Hubbard, S. Fletcher, B. W. Romans • Submarine Lobes Confined behind Depositional Relief at the Toe-Wall of a Seismic-Scale Mass Transport Complex, Neuquén Basin, Argentina: D. Hodgson, R. A. Duller, C. A. Jackson, Y. Spychala • Association Between Slope Channel Architecture and Shelf Sediment Supplies: A Quantitative Study of the Tectonically Active Columbus Basin, Trinidad: K. A. Ramlal, L. J. Wood



Introductory Remarks An Integrated Stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Shale, Texas, USA: J. S. Eldrett, S. Bergman, D. Minisini, C. Macaulay Stratigraphy and Sedimentary Facies of the Eagle Ford Shale (Cretaceous) Between the Maverick Basin and the San Marcos Arch, Texas, USA: J. A. Breyer, R. Denne, J. Funk, T. Kosanke, J. Spaw Influence of Primary Rock Texture, Diagenesis, and Thermal Maturity on Eagle Ford Pore Systems: A. Ozkan, K. L. Milliken, C. Macaulay, M. Johnston, D. Minisini, J. S. Eldrett, S. Bergman, A. Kelley Defining the Sequence Stratigraphic Framework, Organic Richness, and Hydrocarbon Storage of the Cenomanian/ Turonian Eagle Ford Formation, South Texas: J. M. Guthrie, T. C. Huang, R. Handford, R. Mitchell, S. Crews, R. Beaubouef, J. Halgas Break Cyclic Drivers for Limestone/Marl Sequences, Eagle Ford Shale (Cenomanian-Turonian,) South Texas: T. Kosanke, R. Denne, K. Campion, S. Egenhoff, J. Spaw, J. Breyer Relationship of Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford Shale Oil and Gas Resources: Evaluating a Stacked Source Rock — Reservoir Scenario: K. Pearson Investigating the Geologic Factors That Control Reservoir and Completion Quality within the Eagle Ford Shale: C. Miller, E. Rylander, R. Lewis, S. Sinclair, T. Jiang, B. Dean, H. Gamero Seismic Inversion for Shale Gas/Oil Within the Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford Shale, Maverick Basin, South Texas: O. Ogiesoba, R. Eastwood, W. A. Ambrose, U. Hammes Allocating the Contribution of Oil From the Eagle Ford Formation, the Buda Formation, and the Austin Chalk to Commingled Production From Horizontal Wells in South Texas Using Geochemical Fingerprinting Technology: D. K. Baskin, M. McCaffrey, A. Kornacki

THEME 6 Identification and Modeling of Complex Pore Systems in Carbonate Reservoirs (SEPM) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: G. P. Eberli, J. Kenter and M. Skalinski 1:15 1:20



2:20 2:40

Introductory Remarks Non-traditional Techniques for Microporosity Evaluation in a Low-Permeability Carbonate Reservoir From a Giant Oil Field Offshore Abu Dhabi, UAE: T. D. Jobe, R. Sarg, T. Steuber, H. Shebl Sub-Micron Digital Image Analysis (BIBSEM-DIA), Pore Geometries and Electrical Resistivity in Carbonate Rocks: J. H. Norbisrath, G. Eberli, R. J. Weger, K. Verwer, J. Urai, G. Desbois, B. Laurich Relationship between Acoustic and Petrophysical Properties of Permian Grainstones, Lawyer Canyon, Algerita Escarpment, West Texas: X. Janson, F. Lucia Pore Typing Workflow for Complex Carbonate Systems: M. Skalinski, J. Kenter Break



3:25 3:45




Spectrum of Micropore Types and Their Origin in Limestones: R. G. Loucks, F. Lucia Dual Mineral Matrix and Organic Pore Textures in Thermally Mature Niobrara Formation, Rocky Mountains Region, USA – Implications for Tight-Oil Carbonate Reservoir Modeling: C. D. Laughrey, T. E. Ruble, P. Purrazzella, K. Hooghan, J. Beuthin, K. Washburn, W. Dorsey Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solves Challenges of Identifying Hydrocarbons in Low-Resistivity Pay Zones: C. H. Smith, L. Hamilton, J. R. Kinney, J. Christensen, G. A. Payne Characterization of Fluid Dynamics in Carbonate Reservoirs Using 4-D GPR: Assessment of Stratigraphic and Structural Controls on Flow and Comparison With Dynamic Modeling: P. Marchesini, M. Grasmueck, G. Eberli, R. J. Weger The Study and Application of the Connectivity of the Carbonate Reservoirs in Tarim Basin: J. Wang, H. Zhang, F. Chen, J. Zhou

THEME 5 SEPM Research Symposium — Depositional Systems and Sedimentology of Shale and Tight-Sand Reservoirs II Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: A. Carroll, B. Zempolich and S. Egenhoff 1:15 1:20



2:20 2:40 3:25



4:25 4:45

Introductory Remarks Classification and Description Guidelines for the Spectrum of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks: Simplicity and Order Out of Chaos: R. O. Lazar, K. Bohacs, J. Macquaker, J. Schieber, T. Demko Mudstone Aggregates and Their Implications for Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics: D. P. Layco*ck, P. Pedersen, R. Spencer Bedload Transport of Mud — A Mechanism for the Infilling of Epicontinental Basins and Lateral Displacement of Source Rocks: J. Schieber, R. Bennett, K. Curry, A. Schimmelmann The Importance of Near-Bed Sediment Concentration on Shelf Bed-Load Sedimentary Structures: B. Arnott Break Microbial Mats as an Indicator for Pauses during “Shale” Deposition – Kimmeridge Clay Formation (Upper Jurassic), Offshore UK: S. Egenhoff, N. Fishman, R. Hill Organic Sedimentation in Lake Malawi, East Africa: Implications for Unconventional Petroleum in Lacustrine Shales: G. S. Ellis, B. J. Katz, C. Scholz, P. Swart A Genetic Stratigraphic Framework of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah:The Impact of Climatic Controls on Lake Evolution: L. P. Birgenheier, P. Plink-Bjorklund, M. D. Vanden Berg, M. Rosenberg, L. Toms, J. A. Golab Shallow vs. Deep Water Origin for U.S. Cretaceous “Shale” Reservoir Successions: C. Fielding Lithologic Heterogeneity in the Upper Devonian Woodford Shale (Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma USA): J. M. Spaw

THEME 5 Domestic and International Turbidites (AAPG/SEPM) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: J. Covault and B. Carson 1:15 1:20


Introductory Remarks Grain-Size Characteristics of Unconfined Deep-Water Deposits in the Quaternary Santa Monica Basin,


1:40 2:00


2:40 3:25





California: Implications for Reservoir Quality in Distal Turbidite Systems: B. Romans, A. Fildani, J. Clark, B. Power, M. Sullivan TBD Process-Based Sand Prediction: Eastern Gulf of Mexico: S. Hudson, D. Armitage, D. Granjeon, X. Wu, J. Blackerby, C. Mornet An Integrated Approach of Reservoir Prediction in a Structurally and Stratigraphically Complex Area — A Miocene Example from Eastern Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: X. Wu, C. Mornet, M. McGilvery, J. Blackerby Break Variability in Slope Sandstone Bodies: Linkage to Slope Morphology and Evolution: B. Romans, S. M. Hubbard, L. Stright, N. C. Auchter Sand-Attached to Sand-Detached Deepwater Systems: Is There Predictability in Their Stratigraphic Distribution?: D. Hodgson, W. C. Van Der Merwe, R. L. Brunt, S. S. Flint A Tool to Interpret High-Density Turbidity Current Processes From High-Density Turbidite Lithofacies: M. Cartigny, J. T. Eggenhuisen, G. Postma The Campanian Quartz Claystone Conundrum of the African Transform Margin — A Re-Evaluation of the Possible Origins of This Quartz Rich, Silty Claystone: A. Brown, S. Birkhead, D. McLean, P. Towle, H. White, Y. Wu Grainsize Control on Depositional Style in Deepwater Depositional Systems: J. T. Eggenhuisen, M. Hofstra, M. Cartigny

Energy Policy Forum: Demand Side of the Natural Gas Price Equation (AAPG/DPA/GEO-DC) Room 406 Moderator: E. Allison 1:15 1:20 1:40 2:00 2:20 2:40 3:25

Introductory Remarks Projections of Future Natural Gas Demand From the U.S. Energy Information Administration: H. Gruenspecht Expectations for Future Natural Gas and LNG Exports: C. Smith Potential Growth of Natural Gas Demand for Vehicles: L. Sanford Potential Growth in Natural Gas Demand for Chemicals: J. Cooper Break Q&A

THEME 10 Geology/Geophysics Integration Case Studies (AAPG) Room 407 Co-Chairs: D. Gao and D. Zhao 1:15 1:20

1:40 2:00


Introductory Remarks A Review of Hydrocarbon Prospects in the Lower Benue Trough Nigeria: Another Insight From Potential Field Study: L. N. Onuba, G. A. Onwuemesi, B. Egboka, G. K. Anudu, A. Omali Directing a Marcellus Shale Drilling Program Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data: J. P. fa*gan Application of Seismic Sedimentology on the Prediction of Beach and Bar Sandbodies in Lacustrine: A Case Study of the Cretaceous in Chepaizi Area, Junggar Basin, NW China: D. Zhao, X. Zhu, Y. Dong Integrated 3-Dimensional Modeling of Igloo R3 Reservoir, Onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria: E. K. Anakwuba,

2:40 3:25 3:45

4:05 4:25 4:45

G. A. Onwuemesi, C. U. Onyekwelu, I. A. Chinwuko, N. Akachikelu, I. I. Obiadi Break Earth Tide, Microseepage and Microbial Geochemical Exploration (MGCE): H. Mei, D. Hitzman, D. Guo, B. Mei Distribution and Origin Model of the Cenozoic Conglomerate Deposits by Electrical Survey in Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin: H. Sun, H. Zhu, D. Zhong The Rawa Besar Lake Area (Depok, Indonesia) Study by Using Ground Penetrating Radar: A. C. Finahsan, S. Suparno Identification Method and Effect of Dongjiagang’s Alluvial Fan: L. Cao, Y. Xu, L. Sun*, L. Pei, L. Yu, L. Xie, H. Zhu Support Vector Regression to Estimate Sonic Log Distributions and Overpressured Zones: C. Cranganu, M. Breaban



2:40 3:25


4:05 SPECIAL SESSION: Hurricane Sandy and Our Vulnerable Developed Coastlines (Eastern Section SEPM) Room 408/409/410 Moderator: R. Viso Time: 1:15 p.m.–2:40 p.m. Invited Speakers: Dr. Cheryl J Hapke, United States Geological Survey Dr. Jesse McNinch, Director, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility Dr. Art Trembanis, Coastal Sediments Hydrodynamics and Engineering Laboratory THEME 9 Exploration in Salt and Deepwater Structural Systems (AAPG) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: V. Hebert and M. Fisher 3:20 3:25 3:45




Introductory Remarks Fluid Systems Around Salt Diapirs: M. P. Fischer, P. Kenroy, A. Smith Evolution of Structures above a Salt Diapir — Case Study from the Arabian Gulf Region: M. M. Al-Fahmi, A. Plesch, J. Shaw, J. Cole Structural Growth Rate and Impact on Deepwater Depositional Systems in Deepwater Fold Belts: Gulf of Mexico, Angola and Niger Delta: L. Lonergan, B. A. Jolly, G. L. Jones, M. Mayall, A. C. Whittaker, S. Dee Influence of Fold and Salt-wall Growth Rates on Deepwater Sedimentary Systems in an Active Salt Minibasin, Offshore Angola: G. L. Jones, L. Lonergan, M. Mayall, S. Dee Geomorphic Responses of Slope Channel Systems to Growing Thrusts and Folds, Deepwater Niger Delta: B. A. Jolly, L. Lonergan, A. C. Whittaker

THEME 9 Impact of Faulting, Fracturing, and Stress in Shale and Tight Reservoirs (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: W. Sassi and P. Armitage 1:15 1:20


Introductory Remarks Multi-Scale Characterization of Faults and Fractures in the Marcellus and their Influence upon Well Performance: B. Stephenson, C. Dick, C. MacDonald, J. Dionne, N. McGraw, C. Bohn, M. Williams Viscoplastic Deformation of Shale Gas Reservoir Rocks and Its Relation to the In-Situ Stress Variations Observed in a Well From Barnett Shale: H. Sone, M. Zoback



Asperity and Joint Failures, Overall Surface Ruptures, Identification of and Role in the Interpretation of Discrete Fracture Networks: T. Urbancic, A. Baig*, S. Karimi, G. Viegas Fernandes Natural Fracture Networks Enhancing Unconventional Reservoirs’ Producibility: Mapping & Predicting: H. Abul Khair, D. Cooke, M. Hand Break Tight Reservoir Rock Integrity — Experimentally Measured Pre-Failure Permeability Response to Stress Changes: P. Armitage, D. Faulkner, R. H. Worden, O. Blake, J. Omma Prediction of Sub-Seismic, Fault-related Fracture and Their Inclusion in Geocellular Models: D. Wolf, L. Bazalgette, P. Richard Pitfalls of Using Entrenched Fracture Relationships: Fracture System within Bedded Carbonates of the Hidden Valley Fault Zone, Canyon Lake Gorge, Comal County, Texas: R. N. McGinnis, D. A. Ferrill, K. J. Smart, A. P. Morris Outcrop to Core Comparison of Natural Fractures in a Tight Gas Sandstone Reservoir, Alberta Foothills, Canada: E. Ukar, P. Eichhubl, A. Fall, J. Hooker A 48 m.y. History of Natural Fracture Propagation: A. Fall, P. Eichhubl, K. Black, S. E. Laubach

Tuesday Afternoon Poster Sessions Presenters in booths: 2:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m. THEME 2 World Class Resources Emerge From a Historic Basin (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. McCallum and D. M. Reif • Advanced 3-D Structural Modeling of LWD Borehole Images for Optimized Well Placement: O. Azike, A. Wray* • Concepts and Methods for the Recognition of Cyclicity in the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale: O. O. Emmanuel, S. Sonnenberg • Washington-Taylorstown Field as a Microcosm of the Oil and Gas Industry in Pennsylvania: K. M. Carter • Nano-to-Micrometer Size Pores in Marcellus Shale Matrix: A Neutron Scattering Study: X. Gu, S. Brantley • Lithologic Characterization of Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin and Its Implication for Organic-Rich Mudstone Deposition, Diagenesis and Shale Gas Exploration: J. Zhou, P. Rush, A. Sridhar, R. Miller • Evaluating Reservoir Characteristics of the Utica Shale at Varying Levels of Thermal Maturity: M. L. Cooney, K. M. Carter • X-Ray Computed Tomography of the Utica Shale: D. A. Kackley, A. Cook, D. R. Cole, M. Murphy, S. Welch, J. Sheets • TOC and Mineralogical Trends in the Utica Shale of Ohio: J. Harrington, D. R. Cole, J. Sheets, A. M. Swift, M. Murphy, S. Welch • Assessment of Thermal Maturation in Outcrop Samples of the Utica Shale, Northern Appalachian Basin, New York: T. E. Ruble, W. R. Knowles, B. W. Selleck, A. S. Wylie • Revised Chronostratigraphy of the Cambrian System in Subsurface Ohio: L. E. Babco*ck, M. T. Baranoski • Assessing Suitability of Depleted Fields for Enhanced Oil Recovery in West Virginia: J. P. Moore, P. Dinterman, J. Lewis, J. Luczko, S. Pool • Petrography of the Marcellus Shale in Well WV6, Monongalia County, West Virginia: H. Eastman • Investigation of Marcellus Shale Reservoir Variability Within Different Deposition Systems: G. C. Bank, J. S. Reed



THEME 3 International Oil and Gas Plays (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.– 5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: P. Billman and B. Hayward • Main Petroleum Provinces and Recent Discoveries of Latin America: L. Zhang, G. Zhang • Cretaceous-Tertiary Sedimentary Filling Characteristics and Hydrocarbon Exploration Potential of Rakhine Basin in Myanmar: W. Hongping, L. Fuliang, G. Fan, M. Chaolin, W. Yiping, H. Sun • Spatial Changes in Tectonic and Stratigraphic Style across a Transform Fault, Offshore Sierra Leone Basin (West Africa): Implications for Potential Reservoir and Trap Architecture: C. A. Elenwa, M. P. Watkinson*, M. W. Anderson • The West Mediterranean Salt Basin — A Future Petroleum Producing Province?: G. Roberts, T. Christoffersen • Morondava Basin, Offshore Madagascar — New Long Offset Seismic Data Highlights the Petroleum Prospectivity of this Emerging Frontier Basin: G. Roberts, T. Christoffersen, H. Weining • East Indonesia: Plays and Prospectivity of the West Aru, Kai Besar and Tanimbar Area–Identified From New Long Offset Seismic Data — An Update Based on Further Data Acquisition and Interpretation: G. Roberts, T. Christoffersen, C. Ramsden • Play Analysis and Exploration Potential of the Côte d’Ivoire Basin, West African: Z. Xu, L. Fuliang, G. Fan, M. Chaolin • Corozal Basin Stratigraphy of Northern and Central Belize: M. Wade, D. T. King Jr*, L. W. Petruny • Cenomanian-Turonian Source-Rocks in the Southern North Atlantic Ocean: Origin, Distribution, and Exploration Impact: T. Leyenberger • Petroleum System Evaluation of the Korotaikha Fold-Belt and Foreland Basin, Timan-Pechora Basin, Russia: B. J. Fossum, N. T. Grant, B. Byurchieva • Proven Deepwater Play and Exploration Potential in Qiongdongnan Basin, North South China Sea: Z. Sun, M. Guo, Z. Yao • Hydrocarbon Depletion and Enrichment in Strike-SlipTranspressional Structure zone, the Southern Liaodong Bay Depression of the Bohai Bay Basin, China: Y. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Xu

THEME 5 Outcrop, Subsurface and Simulation: Perspectives on Quantitative Modeling of Sedimentary Systems (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: E. Hajek and M. Gani • Quantifying Slope Intra-Channel Facies Architecture From Outcrop: B. G. Daniels, R. V. Macauley, S. Fletcher, A. A. Jackson, L. Stright, B. Romans, S. M. Hubbard • Physical Modeling of Turbidity Current Flow Equilibration to a Fixed Multibend Sinuous Channel Form: K. M. Hunter, W. D. McCaffrey, G. M. Keevil, I. A. Kane • Subsurface Core and Analogous Outcrop Characterization of the Muddy/Newcastle Formation for the Bell Creek Oil Field, Powder River County, Montana: J. R. Braunberger, W. Peck, T. Bailey, J. Bremer, B. Huffman, C. Gorecki • External Controls on the Evolution of a Prograding Shelf Margin: the Craven Basin, UK: J. F. Bijkerk, P. Wignall, C. Waters, J. T. Eggenhuisen, I. A. Kane, W. D. McCaffrey • Mapping Tools Applied to Reservoir Efficiency Index (REI) Evaluation at Prospect/Basin Scale: A. Consonni, A. Ortenzi • Relationship Between River-Mouth Depositional Processes and Delta Architectures, Huangqihai Lake, Inner Mongolia, North China: L. Shunli, Y. Xinghe, S. Li, R. J. Steel, C. Olariu • Prediction of Reservoir-Scale Carbonate Cements in Sandstones: G. Thyne



• Quantifying the Importance of Sediment Supply, Global Eustasy and Fault-Induced Accommodation in Controlling Delta Architecture, Shelf-Margin Growth and Deep-water Sediment Transfer: Insights from Stratigraphic-Forward Modeling in Northern Australia: J. Bourget, T. Salles-Taing, B. Ainsworth, G. Duclaux • Investigating Down-Slope Changes in Deep-Water Channel Stacking With a 3-D Digital Outcrop Model, Cretaceous Tres Pasos Formation, Southern Chile: S. Fletcher, S. M. Hubbard, R. V. Macauley, E. Pemberton, B. Romans, L. Stright • Sedpak-A Qualitative Computer Simulation for Understanding Sequence Stratigraphy Modeling Concepts and Parameters: C. G. Kendall, E. Viparelli • Controls on Fluid Flow and Hydrocarbon Recovery in a Clinoform-Bearing, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir Analog: Ferron Sandstone, Utah: G. H. Graham, M. D. Jackson, G. J. Hampson

THEME 5 Sedimentology, Geomorphology and Stratigraphy of Coastal, Estuarine, and Nearshore Systems (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.– 5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: D. Kamola, M. Fenster and M. Gani • Anatomy of a Wave-Dominated, Tide-Influenced, Fluvial-Affected (Wtf) Mouthbar Element Complex — Evidence from Outcrop, Core and Wireline Data: Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada: B. Ainsworth, B. Vakarelov, C. Lee, J. A. MacEachern • Anatomy of a Mixed-Process Shelf-Margin Delta, NW Australia: An Example of Process-Based Classification and Uncertainty Management From a Seismic Dataset: J. Bourget, S. L. Thompson, B. Ainsworth • Influence of Sediment Cohesion on Basin-Filling Sedimentation Patterns: Q. Li, K. M. Straub • Offshore Wind-Dominated Shoreline Progradation in an Arid Environment: Examples From the Leeward Shoreline of Qatar (Khor Al-Adaid Area): C. J. Strohmenger, J. Jameson • Growth-Faulted Compartments of the Oligocene Frio Formation in Proximity of the Shelf Edge in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas: M. Olariu, U. Hammes, W. A. Ambrose, O. C. Ogiesoba • Sedimentological and Ichnological Analysis of the McMurray IHS (Kearl Area): S. Alina, R. A. Myers, J. J. Scott, M. K. Gingras, S. Pemberton • Implication of Depositional Architecture and Its Control on Vertical and Lateral Variation of Reservoir Facies — A Case Study from North Kuwait Field: P. K. Mishra, J. M. Al-Kanderi • Siliciclastics Sequence Models in Wide and Low-gradient Continental Margin of Northern South China Sea: S. Zhang, C. Zhang, Y. Yin, H. Shi, R. Wang, J. Du • Lithofacies Interpretation From Core Studies of a Middle Jurassic Reservoir, North Usturt Basin, Kazakhstan: New Insights on the Reservoir Quality of the Caspian Sea Coast: J. D. Sanchez Mendoza, A. Novikov • Imbricate Structure of Fluvial Facies and Its Petroleum Geological Significance: J. Zhong, Z. Shao, Y. Li, C. Mao, S. Liu, L. Ni • Application of Field Analogs in New Mexico to the ReInterpretation of Some Niger Delta Shallow-Marine Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: R. Onyirioha, G. Okeke, R. Combellas, O. Ajao, C. Okafor, F. Pichard

THEME 6 Carbonates and Evaporites I (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: C. Kerans, E. Franseen and C. Iannello Bachtel

• Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle to Late Miocene, Al-Jabal Al-Khdar Uplift and Soluq Trough, Cyrenaican NE Libya: K. S. Amrouni, M. C. Pope, A. S. El-Hawat • Precambrian Analogs for Pre-Salt Lacustrine Carbonates: J. W. Bishop, M. S. Wasson, M. A. Murphy-Bishop, D. Y. Sumner • Factors Controlling Differential Growth, Margin Geometry and Drowning of an Isolated Permian-Triassic Platform in the Nanpanjiang Basin, South China: D. Watford, J. Shultz, D. Lehrmann*, X. Li, J. Payne, M. Minzoni • Basin Wide Controls on Carbonate Platform Evolution: The Triassic Nanpanjiang Basin of South China: D. Lehrmann, M. Minzoni, J. Payne, P. Enos, M. Yu, J. Wei, B. Kelley, E. Schaal, K. Meyer, X. Li, P. Montgomery • Recurrent Cooling Events in Aptian Greenhouse: Stable-Isotope Trends and Sequence-Stratigraphic Evidence From Southern Tethyan Adriatic Platform Carbonates: A. Husinec, J. Read • Heterogeneity and Depositional Variability of Reef Sand Aprons: Integrated Field and Modeling Analysis of Dynamics of Holocene Aranuka Atoll, Republic of Kiribati, Equatorial Pacific: H. N. Wasserman, E. C. Rankey, T. Uriam • Geologic Patterns of Internal Architecture in Reef-Shoal Complexes Along Kaijiang-Liangping Trough in Sichuan Basin During Late Permian Changxingian: A. Xu, Z. Wang, X. Zhai, J. Yin, Z. Gu, Q. Li, D. Bao • Based on the Filling Evaluation of Carbonate Paleokarst Reservoir Poroperm Characteristics in Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin: X. Kang, Q. Jin, T. Fei, Y. Li, H. Zhang • Sequence Stratigraphy and Resulting Reservoir and Non-reservoir Facies Distribution, Upper Devonian Winterburn Nikanassin Range Outcrops, Alberta Canada: J. A. Weissenberger, P. K. Wong, M. G. Gilhooly • Microbialite “Shrubs” of the Eocene Green River Formation: Analogs for the Cretaceous Pre-Salt Lacustrine Systems of the South Atlantic Conjugate Basins: S. M. Awramik, P. Buchheim • Lacustrine Sedimentation and Paleolimnology in an Early Cretaceous Backbulge-Basin Lake: M. Trees • Reservoir Character of Carbonate/Evaporite Oil Fields of the Middle East: A Response to Depositional Setting and Accommodation Space: C. G. Kendall, A. S. Alsharhan • Controls on the Architecture of Paleokarst Systems and Associated Reservoir Quality: R. G. Loucks, C. Zahm THEME 6 Carbonates and Evaporites II (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: C. Kerans, E. Franseen and C. Iannello Bachtel • Evaporite-Carbonate-Siliciclastic Interactions in Extensional Settings, El Qaa Fault Block, Suez Rift, Egypt: M. Muravchik, R. Gawthorpe, I. Sharp • Miocene Carbonate Microfacies Distribution of Tendehantu Formation, Mangkalihat Peninsula: Approach of Reservoir Potential Using Outcrop Analogue: A. I. Koeshidayatullah • Analysis of a Pennsylvanian to Early Permian Shelf Margin and Its Adjacent Slopes, Sverdrup Basin, North West Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada: C. Shultz, B. Beauchamp • Late Jurassic Jubaila Formation Storm-Dominated Cycles of Central Arabia: Outcrop Expression of a Reservoir in the Arab Formation: R. F. Lindsay, D. L. Cantrell, N. F. Hurley, A. G. Al-Dhubeeb, A. A. Al-Ibrahim • The Cambro-Ordovician Prairie du Chien and Knox Groups in the Subsurface of Central Illinois: Facies, Reservoir Potential, and Correlation: Z. Askari, Y. Lasemi, H. E. Leetaru • Comparative Analysis of the Western and Eastern Architecture of the Northern Margin of the Great Bank of Guizhou, Guizhou Province, South China: B. Kelley, D. Lehrmann, M. Yu, K. V. Lau,

D. Watford, J. Shultz, J. Payne, M. Minzoni • Reefs — Evaporites Relations in Late Permian of Western Poland: T. M. Peryt, K. Dyjaczynski • Stratigraphic Framework for Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Carbonate Slope/Toe-Of-Slope Sediments, Tybo Canyon, Hot Creek Range, Nevada: S. Marek, M. Lira, M. C. Pope • Sedimentary Facies and Palaeoenvironmental Records of an Intracratonic Basin Lake: Aptian Lacustrine Crato Formation, Jatobá Basin, NE Brazil: V. H. Neumann, D. Rocha, W. Vortisch, R. Gratzer, M. Lima, J. A. Barbosa, G. Fambrini • A Revised Stratigraphic Framework for the Middle and Upper Devonian of the Northern Michigan Basin: J. Zambito • High Resolution Sequence and Chemostratigraphic Correlations of the Grayburg Formation-Shattuck Valley Escarpment and Plowman Ridge-Testing Models of Shelf-to-Basin Frameworks: S. Hiebert, C. Kerans, S. C. Ruppel, H. Rowe • Facies Belts, Microfacies, and Karst Features of the Ellenburger Group, Kerr Basin, Texas: Observations Based on Cores: R. C. Geesaman, J. L. Wilson

THEME 7 Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage (DEG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m. – 5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: D. J. Soeder and M. Sharma • Geologically Sequestered Carbon Dioxide as a Geothermal Heat Mining Fluid — Applications to Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations: J. B. Randolph • Spatial Stochastic Modeling of Sedimentary Formations to Assess CO2 Storage Potential. A Case Study for the Pennsylvania Part of the Appalachian Basin: O. H. Popova, M. J. Small, A. C. Thomas, S. McCoy, B. Karimi, S. Rose • Preliminary Results From the TriCarb Deep Stratigraphic Well Drilled into the Newark Rift Basin, Rockland County, NY: B. E. Slater, T. Smith, D. Collins, M. Tymchak • Evaluating Carbon Storage in Morrowan and Mississippian Oil Fields and Underlying Lower Ordovician Arbuckle Saline Aquifer in Southern Kansas: W. L. Watney, J. Rush, M. K. Dubois, R. L. Barker, T. Birdie, K. Cooper, S. Datta, J. Doveton, M. Fazelalavi, D. Fowle, P. Gerlach, T. Hansen, D. E. Hedke, Y. Holubnyak, B. Huff, K. Newell, L. Nicholson, J. Roberts, A. Scheffer, A. Sirazhiev, R. P. Sorenson, G. Tsoflias, E. Williams, D. Wreath, J. Youle • Geologic Characterization for the U.S. SECARB Anthropogenic Test; Combining Modern and Vintage Well Data to Predict Reservoir Properties: S. R. Cyphers, G. J. Koperna • CO2 Injection Monitoring Using an Experimental Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) System: G. J. Koperna, R. Trautz, T. M. Daley, B. M. Freifeld, K. Dodds • Use of 3-Dimensional Dynamic Modeling of CO2 Injection for Comparison to Regional Static Capacity Assessments of Miocene Sandstone Reservoirs in the Texas State Waters, Gulf of Mexico: K. Wallace, T. Meckel, E. Miller, D. Carr, R. Trevino • The Effects of Thermal Shock Due to Injection of Fluids on the Petrophysical Properties of Caprock and Reservoir Rocks; An Experimental Approach: O. Blake, D. Faulkner, R. H. Worden, P. Armitage • Effect of Shallow Subsurface Heterogeneities in CO2 Storage Monitoring for EOR: Case Studies From the Gulf Coast: K. Zahid, B. D. Wolaver, W. A. Ambrose, R. C. Smyth • Experimental Analysis and Modeling of PFT and SF6 Transport in Organic Rich Vadose Zones: Implications for Monitoring CO2 Leakage at CCS Sites: M. R. Gawey, T. Larson, K. Romanak, S. Hovorka, T. J. Phelps



• Evolution of Voids and Fractures in Wellbore Cement Under Dynamic Flow Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration: P. Cao, Z. Karpyn, L. Li • Evaluation of Sequestration Options for Deep Saline Formations and Oil and Gas Fields in Eastern Ohio: R. A. Riley, M. P. Solis, M. S. Erenpreiss • Dynamic Simulation of Pilot Scale CO2 Injection in the Arbuckle Saline Aquifer at Wellington Field in Southern Kansas: Y. Holubnyak, W. L. Watney, J. Rush, T. Birdie, J. Doveton, M. Fazelalavi • Analysis of the Efficacy of CO2 Sequestration Into Depleted Shale Gas Reservoirs: I. B. Kulga, T. Ertekin • Geochemical Experimentation and Modeling of CO2 — WaterRock Reactions Due to Deep CO2 Injection into Midcontinent Rift Clastics: A. M. Abousif, D. J. Wronkiewicz • Anatomy of Pore Networks in Caprock Relevant to Geologic CO2 Sequestration: D. R. Cole, J. Sheets, A. Swift, M. Murphy, S. Welch, L. Anovitz, G. Rother, L. Vlcek

• Andean Exhumation and Growth of the Subandean-Chaco Foreland Basin, Southern Bolivia: Spatial-Temporal Variations and Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration: A. Z. Calle, B. K. Horton • Mesozoic-Cenozoic Basin and Orogeny Evolution of Northern Tianshan and Its Implications for Hydrocarbon Exploration in Southern Junggar Basin: S. Fang, Z. Guo, M. Zhao, Z. Zhang, S. Liu • Main Thrust Fault Controlling on Hydrocarbon Accumulation in Wuxia Thrust Belt, NW Junggar Basin: Evidences From Paleofluid Data: S. Fang, M. Zhao, H. Cao, S. Liu • A Preliminary Study on the Late Cenozoic Structural Characteristics of Arakan Fold Belt, Bay of Bengal: P. Tang, L. Fuliang, F. Guozhang, X. Wang, H. Sun, L. Li • What About the Slip? Examining the Influence of Frictional Layer-Parallel Slip on Fault-Related Fold Geometry: A. M. Hodge, K. Johnson, B. Douglas • Structural Style of Appalachian Plateau Folds, North-Central Pennsylvania: V. S. Mount, R. E. Harris, H. A. Casillas

THEME 7 Mitigating Environmental Impacts in the Oil and Gas Industry (DEG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: D. J. Soeder and S. Sharma • New Data and Techniques for Evaluating Subsidence from Abandoned Underground Mines in Ohio: J. McDonald • Modeling the Potential Impact of Oil Spills on Commercial Fisheries in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: J. Graham, K. Rose, J. Nelson, L. Sim, C. Ringo • Offshore Oil Spill Contingency Planning – A Waste Management Approach: S. Metcalf • Deepwater and Ultra-Deepwater Blowout and Offshore Spill Model: L. Sim, J. Graham, K. Rose • Growing Microalgae on Hydraulic Fracturing Return Water for the Combined Benefit of Bioremediation and Biodiesel Production: B. Van Aken, S. Ranjbar Kolachaie • Injection Pattern Design to Maximize the Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Injection for Sequestration Purposes in Brine Formations: Q. Sun, T. Ertekin THEME 9 Contractional Tectonics and Fold-Thrust Belts: Implications for Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons, Including Reservoir Productivity (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 1:15 p.m.–5:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: M. P. McKay and D. Harris • Basem*nt-involved Structural Styles Along the Eastern Sulaiman Ranges Front, Pakistan: A. Sajjad, K. Irfan Mohammad, R. Gohar, Q. Abdul • Thrust Fault Evolution and Hydrocarbon Sealing Behavior, Qaidam Basin, China: Y. Pei, R. J. Knipe, D. A. Paton, H. Lickorish, A. Li • A New Thick-Skinned Structure Model for the Kedo Thrust Belt in the West KunLun Mount, Tarim Basin, Northwestern China: W. Guizhong, Z. Jianwei*, M. Peiling, H. Changwei, L. Dongming, X. Bo, Z. Xiangzhou • Evolution of Fault-Related Folds and Their Hydrocarbon Trapping Potential: Kurdistan Region of Iraq: M. Zebari, C. M. Burberry • 2-D Seismic Interpretation of the Tumaco Basin, SW Colombia: Implications for Tectono-Stratigraphic Evolution and Hydrocarbon Exploration: L. F. Campino, A. Escalona • Uncovering Thick Sediment for Panama Exploration: A GPSBased Kinematic Model for the Western Caribbean: D. Kobayashi, P. LaFemina, H. Geirsson



Wednesday Morning Oral Sessions THEME 1 Shale and Tight Oil Plays From Around the Globe (EMD) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Chair: K. L. Avary 8:00 8:05 8:25



9:25 10:10 10:30




Introductory Remarks Unconventional Resources Around the World: Company Strategies for Dynamic Global Markets: R. Clarke Organic Rich Shale in Permian Fjords — A Potential Resource Play in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia: S. A. Menpes Lower Wolfcamp Carbonate Breccias: Implications for Sequence Stacking Patterns in the Lower Slopeto-Proximal Basin Environment of Deposition: J. A. Bellian, T. Playton, K. Willis, C. Horn, G. Hinterlong Effective Application and Utilization of Inorganic Geochemical Data in Shale Resource Plays: A Case Study From the Appalachian Basin: N. Martinez-Kulikowski, M. Wright, A. Reynolds Break Petrophysical Analogue Trends From Core Property Data for Emerging Play Evaluation: G. Baechle, B. Tepper Geochemical Characteristics and Estimation of Gas Content of the Low-Middle Mature Continental Shales: A Case Study From the Ordos Basin: X. Tang, Z. Jinchuan, X. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Yu, L. Wang, J. Xiong Geological Controls on Reservoir Properties and Production Potential of Lower Paleozoic Shale Gas Plays in Sichuan Basin: X. Li, Z. Qiu Geological and Geochemical Attributes of Paleozoic Source Rocks and their Remaining Potential for Unconventional Resources in Erg Oriental Algerian Sahara: A. N. Chaouche Outcrop Characterization and Sequence Stratigraphic Framework of the Brown Shale, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia: Implications as an Unconventional Resource Shale: R. J. Brito, R. M. Slatt, D. P. Kusuma, B. Singh

THEME 9 Contractional Tectonics and Fold-Thrust Belts: Implications for Exploration and Production of Hydrocarbons (AAPG) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: B. Trevail and S. Naruk

8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10





Introductory Remarks Mizoram Fold-thrust Belt, NE India: Initial Hydrocarbon Exploration Strategy Based on Balanced Structural Cross Sections: A. N. Borthakur, D. Changmai, D. K. Mukhopadhyay 3-D Seismic and Geosteering Analysis Reveals the Structural Style of the Appalachian Plateau: P. Gillespie, S. A. Wessels, D. Lynch, J. van Hagen Geological Prediction of Subseismic Deformation From Seismic-Reflection Profiles of Contractional Structures: R. H. Groshong, M. O. Withjack, R. W. Schlische De-Risking Fold and Thrust Belt Hydrocarbon Plays with Structural Modeling: J. Brandenburg, M. Mora-Glukstad, S. Naruk Break High Fluid Pressures and High Fluid Flow Rates From a Zone of Natural Hydrofractures Associated with a Major Out-Of-Sequence Thrust Zone, Convergent Margin, SW Japan: J. C. Moore, M. Barrett, M. Thu The Impact of High Precision Age Controls in Basin Modeling for Tectonic Studies: Karoo Basin, South Africa: M. P. McKay, J. Dean, A. Weislogel Serial Cross-Section Trishear Modeling: Reconstructing 3-D Kinematic Evolution of the Perdido Fold Belt: D. He, J. Brandenburg Identifying and Quantifying the Amount of Layer Parallel Shortening in Compressive Regions Using Thin-Sections and Analog Models: C. M. Burberry Advancements in Interpretation of the Tectonic Structure of the East European Cratonic Edge in Poland Revealed by Recent Regional Seismic Data — Two Orogenies and Beyond: P. Krzywiec, P. Lis, V. Buffenmyer, M. Malinowski, M. Lewandowski

THEME 1 Evaluation of European Shales (EMD) Room 319/320/321 Chair: T. Carr 8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10

10:30 10:50


Introductory Remarks Comparison of North American and European Shale Gas and Oil Resource Systems: J. E. Zumberge, J. B. Curtis*, S. W. Brown The Sequence Stratigraphic and Palinspastic Framework of Paleozoic Resource Play Potential in Europe: M. D. Booker, S. Laird, M. Wiltshire, A. Messer Assessment of Potential Shale Gas Resources in UK Pennine Basin Carboniferous Shales: S. Stoker, T. Harvey, I. Andrews, K. Smith, N. Smith, C. Vincent Shale Gas and Muddy Shelves: Comparing the NeogeneQuaternary Eridanos System (NW Europe) with the Devonian Catskill Delta (USA): A. Moscariello, D. Ventra, M. Zijp, J. ten Veen Break Sedimentological Characteristics and Shale Gas Potential of Carboniferous Mudstones in Ireland: The Clare and Northwest Carboniferous Basins: K. Taylor, S. Khattab, K. Nolan, J. Redfern, B. Williams, S. Warshauer, J. Hill, J. Armstrong Geological Characterization of Early Palaeozoic Mudrocks, Lublin Basin, South-East Poland: S. A. McLay Organic Porosity Study: Porosity Development within Organic Matter of the Lower Silurian and Ordovician Source Rocks of the Poland Shale Gas Trend: V. Kuchinskiy Gas Capacities and Micropore Characterization of Posidonia Shale and Isolated Kerogen: T. Rexer, E. Mathia, M. Thomas, A. Aplin


Porosity and Pore Systems in Gas Shales: Posidonia and Wealden: E. Mathia, T. Rexer, A. Aplin, L. Bowen

THEME 2 World Class Resources Emerge From a Historic Basin I (AAPG) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: J. A. Pancake and D. Patchen 8:00 8:05




9:25 10:10 10:30

10:50 11:10


Introductory Remarks Acadian Sliding: Anatomy of Styles for Gravitational Fault Development and Hydrocarbon Migration in the Western Appalachian Foreland Basin of Pennsylvania and West Virginia: R. Jacobi, J. Starr, D. Jackson, T. Warner, C. Eckert Marcellus Shale Deformation and Related Devonian and Silurian Age Structural Styles and Fabrics, Appalachian Foreland, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania, USA: A. S. Wylie, R. L. Parker The Importance of Vertical Heterogeneities in Unconventional Shale Plays: L. Wensaas, M. Gading, H. Løseth, T. Boassen Correlation of the Marcellus/Millboro Formations From the Northern to the South-Central Appalachian Basin: J. E. Repetski, D. J. Over, C. B. Enomoto Break Rock Fabric Is a Better Predictor of Well Performance Than TOC in the Marcellus Shale: J. Madren, K. Walker Hydrocarbon Production and Microseismic Monitoring — Treatment Optimization in the Marcellus Shale: C. W. Neuhaus Marcellus Shale Stimulation Barrier and Geohazard Assessment: P. Morath, J. Starr, L. Schanken Marcellus Shale Asset Optimization through Increased Geological Understanding: C. Yang, W. A. Zagorski, J. R. Morris, D. A. Bowman A Preliminary Geology-Based Natural Gas Resource Assessment of the Marcellus Shale for West Virginia: S. Pool, R. Boswell, J. Lewis, J. P. Mathews

THEME 5 Advances in Correlation Methods and Architectural Analysis of Clastic Reservoirs (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: B. Bracken and G. Gustason 8:00 8:05




Introductory Remarks Integrating a Hierarchical Process and Architectural Marginal Marine Classification with a Computer Database and Expert Systems — Toward Improved Subsurface Predictions: B. Vakarelov, B. Ainsworth Quantitative Stratigraphic Architecture, Depositional History and Progradation Rates of an Ancient Sand-Prone Subaqueous Delta (Sognefjord Formation, Troll Field, Norwegian North Sea): S. Patruno, G. J. Hampson, C. Jackson Compensatory Stacking Patterns Within Turbidite — Channel Lobe Systems and the Impact to Resource Distribution, Reservoir Architecture and Connectivity: Example From the Polecat Discovery, UKCS: D. M. Dutton, K. Oudit, A. Theophilos, S. Sweetman Stratigraphic Development of a Submarine Slope to Shelf Edge, Karoo Basin, South Africa: Lessons for Reservoir Prediction: S. Flint, D. Hodgson, R. L. Brunt, W. C. Van Der Merwe, G. Jones, E. Morris



THEME 5 Outcrop, Subsurface and Simulation: Perspectives on Quantitative Modeling of Sedimentary Systems (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: E. Hajek and M. Pyrcz 10:05 10:10

10:30 10:50



Introductory Remarks The Role of Climate Variation in Sequence Stratigraphy: Lessons From Analogue Modeling: J. F. Bijkerk, J. ten Veen, G. Postma, D. Mikes TBD Effective Permeability in Tidal Heterolithic Cross-Bedded Sandstones: B. Y. Massart, M. D. Jackson, G. J. Hampson, B. Legler, H. D. Johnson, C. A. Jackson, R. Ravnas, M. Sarginson Characterization of Discordant Surfaces Within Tidally Influenced Point Bars: Implications for Fluvial System Evolution and Reservoir Development: P. R. Durkin, S. M. Hubbard, D. Leckie, R. Boyd, J. R. Suter Grain Size Controls on Planform Morphology and Stratigraphy of River-Dominated Deltas: A. P. Burpee, R. L. Slingerland, D. A. Edmonds, D. R. Parsons, J. Best, R. Caldwell, A. Nijhuis, J. Royce, J. Cederberg, A. McGuffin, S. Prozeller

Fluid-Rock Interactions and Preliminary Modeling Results: R. J. Donahoe, T. Donovan, A. Weislogel THEME 6 Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Diagenesis of Carbonate and Interbedded Carbonate and Organic-Rich Mudrock Unconventional Reservoirs (AAPG/SEPM) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: T. Smith, R. W. Mitchell and C. Laughrey 8:00 8:05




THEME 7 Advances in Carbon Capture Storage (DEG) Room 407 Co-Chairs: G. Bromhal and M. Sharma

9:25 10:10

8:00 8:05





9:25 10:10






Introductory Remarks Detailed CO2 Storage Reservoir Site Characterization: The Key to Optimizing Performance and Maximizing Storage Capacity: R. Surdam, Z. Jiao, Y. Ganshin, R. Bentley, M. Garcia-Gonzalez, S. Quillinan, J. F. McLauglin, P. Stauffer, H. Deng Experimentally Produced Increase in the Permeability of Caprock by Flow of Carbon Dioxide Saturated Water: P. Armitage, D. Faulkner, R. H. Worden, O. Blake Concentration-Dependent Effects of CO2 on Deep Subsurface Microbial Ecology Under Carbon Sequestration Conditions: D. Gulliver, K. Gregory, G. Lowry Determining Seal Effectiveness and Potential Buoyant Fluid Migration Pathways Using Shallow High-Resolution 3-D Seismic Imaging: Application for CO2 Storage Assessment on the Inner Texas Shelf: T. Meckel, N. Bangs, R. Trevino Break The Miocene Petroleum System, Northern Gulf of Mexico Basin: Implications for CO2 Sequestration in Offshore Texas State Waters: J. Taylor, D. Carr, T. Meckel, R. Trevino Loss of CO2 Gas into Formation Water at the Natural CO2 Deposit of Bravo Dome, New Mexico, USA: M. M. Cassidy, C. Ballentine, M. Hesse Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Arbuckle Aquifer: Insights into Characterization for CO2 Sequestration: R. L. Barker, W. L. Watney, J. Rush, B. Strazisar, A. Scheffer, S. Datta Modeling Reservoir Rock and Formation Fluid Geochemical Interactions: Implications for CO2 Sequestration From Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama: A. Weislogel, R. J. Donahoe, G. Gase, K. Coffindaffer, T. Donovan Injection of Supercritical CO2 at Citronelle Field, Mobile County, Alabama, for Carbon Utilization and Storage:





Introductory Remarks Carbonate Depositional Motifs and Cycle Stacking Patterns in the Eagle Ford Formation, Texas: R. Forkner, D. Minisini Sedimentary Response to OAE2 Across a Spectrum of Carbonate Depositional Settings: A Case Study from Examples in Central Italy: R. Forkner, G. Frijia, M. Mutti, D. Minisini Sequence Architecture, Heterogeneities and Seismic Expressions of a Vaca Muerta Outcrop Analog in the Neuquén Basin, Argentina — Implications for Unconventional Exploration: M. Zeller, S. B. Reid, G. Eberli The Vaca Muerta-Quintuco Mixed System: A Regional Outcrop to Subsurface Overview: J. L. Massaferro, M. Zeller, D. L. Giunta, G. Sagasti, G. Eberli Break Diagenesis, Fluid, and Thermal History of Carbonate Mudrocks; An Example from the Lower Lodgepole Formation, Williston Basin: R. H. Goldstein, R. W. Mitchell* Chemostratigraphic Subdivision and Diagenesis in the Upper Green River Formation, Southern Uinta Basin, Utah: D. Keighley, M. D. Vanden Berg, G. Yan Sequence Stratigraphy in Mixed Lake Systems, Organic Richness and Climate — Green River Formation, Lake Uinta, Part I, Sequence Stratigraphy: K. Tanavsuu-Milkeviciene, R. Sarg, Y. Bartov Sequence Stratigraphy in Mixed Lake Systems, Organic Richness, and Climate — Green River Formation, Lake Uinta, Part II, Organic Richness: R. Sarg, K. Tanavsuu-Milkeviciene, F. Jufang Sequence Stratigraphy in Mixed Lake Systems, Organic Richness and Climate — Green River Formation, Lake Uinta, Part III, Mineralogy and Geochemistry: J. Boak, S. Poole, R. Sarg, K. Tanavsuu-Milkeviciene

THEME 8 Petroleum Systems: Dynamics of Porosity, Permeability, and Basin Evolution (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: D. Barnes and M. Sandstrom 8:00 8:05 8:25

8:45 9:05

9:25 10:10

Introductory Remarks TBD Development of Organic and Inorganic Porosity in the Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation, South Texas: N. Fishman, J. M. Guthrie, M. Honarpour Printing Rocks to Experiment with Pore Space: F. Hasiuk Numerical Investigation of Hydrocarbon Transport by Solitary Waves in the Eugene Island Field, Gulf of Mexico Basin: A. Joshi, M. S. Appold, J. Nunn Break Recent Advances in Petroleum System Modeling of Geochemical Processes: TSR, SARA, and Biodegradation: K. E. Peters, T. Hantschel, A. I. Kauerauf, Y. Tang, B. Wygrala





Accounting for the Effects of Lateral Stress in Basin and Reservoir Quality Modeling in Compressive Tectonic Environments: D. Rajmon, L. Hathon Mapping the Extent and Distribution of Oil Formation in the Upper Bakken Formation, Williston Basin: M. D. Lewan, K. Marra, P. G. Lillis, D. K. Higley, S. Gaswirth 3-D Thermokinematic Modeling of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera: Refining the Timing of Oil Generation and Expulsion Using Multiple Thermocronometers: A. R. Mora, I. Quintero, R. Styron, M. Raghib, M. Parra, R. A. Ketcham Reservoir Wettability Alteration as a Key Enabling Factor for the Hydrocarbon Accumulations in the Deeply Buried Tight Reservoirs in Tarim Basin, China: M. Zhao, K. Liu, Y. Li, S. Liu, S. Fang, X. Guo, Q. Zhuo, X. Lu, J. Fan

Wednesday Morning Poster Sessions Presenters in booths: 9:00 a.m.–10:30 a.m. THEME 1 EMD Coal, Hydrates and Geothermal Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: B. Cardott and K. Newell • Impact of Subsidence and Thermal History on Microbial Gas Generation in Ninilchik Field, Cook Inlet, Alaska: E. Hart, J. Nunn* • Forecasting Coalbed Gas Resources Amount by Artificial Neural Network: Y. Yang • Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Update: A. K. Markowski • Abnormally High Geothermal Gradients in the Cherokee Basin, Southeastern Kansas, USA: K. D. Newell, D. F. Merriam • Geophysical and Geological Evidences of a Petroleum System of Gas Hydrates in the Colombian Caribbean Sea: A. E. Calle • Short Migration of Methane into a Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sand Layer at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico: A. Cook, A. Malinverno • Reservoir Modeling of Production of CH4 From Natural Gas Hydrates by Injection of a CO2+N2 Gas Mixture: N. Garapati, P. McGuire, B. J. Anderson • Gas Hydrate System Modeling in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: T. Fujii, T. Ukita, Y. Komatsu, N. Oikawa, B. P. Wygrala, T. Fuchs, W. Rotke, T. Aung • Abiogenic Gas: Should the Carbon Isotope Order be Reversed?: Z. Wei, Z. Cao, F. Zhao • Gas Hydrates Up-Streaming: S. Mishra • AVO Attribute Analysis for Gas Hydrate in Shenhu Area: Y. Rui, W. Nengyou, S. Zhibin, L. Jinqiang • Geochemical and Physical Evidence of Methane Hydrate in Marine Sediments: E. R. Buchwalter, A. Cook, S. Welch, J. Sheets, K. Rose, C. Disenhof • Relative Controls of Sea-Level and Climate on Coal Seam Composition and Thickness in the Westphalian C (Pennsylvanian/Upper Carboniferous) Four Corners Formation (Breathitt Group), Central Appalachian Basin, USA: R. Jerrett, D. Hodgson, S. S. Flint, R. Davies • Optimal Locations for Lunar Settlements and Industrial Facilities: W. A. Ambrose, B. L. Cutright, D. Beike THEME 1 Unconventional Resources in China (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Chair: G. Wang • Evaluation of Terrestrial Gas Shales: Case Study From the Ordos Basin, North China: J. Zhao, Y. Bai, Q. Cao, C. Er, W. Shen

• Geochemistry of Palaeozoic Black Shales in Northeast Sichuan Basin, China: Y. Liang, S. Zhang, G. Zhu • Geochemical Characterization of the Lower Cambrian Black Shales in the Southern Guizhou Depression, SW China: X. He, G. Yao, Z. Chen, J. Shou, A. Shen, J. Wu • The Effect of Organic Matter on the Methane Adsorption Capacity of Paleozoic Shales From the Sichuan Basin, China: S. Wang, Z. Song, T. Cao, X. Song • Current Status and Prospect of Unconventional Oil and Gas Development in China: X. Zhang, B. Cui, H. Deng, L. Cai, B. Gong, C. Ge • Shale Gas Geological Conditions in the Southeast of the Ordos Basin, Central China: C. Liu, Z. Xu, S. Zheng, J. Liu • The Characteristics of Fractures and Its Controlling on the Deep Basin Gas in the Yinan to Reservoirs of Kuqa Depression, China: W. P. Wang, X. Chen, Q. X. Pang, C. Y. Guo, G. Guo • Geologic Factors of Formation of Tight Oil and Its Resource Potential in China: F. Huang, T. Yang, B. Guo, X. Li, W. Yan, H. Ma • Shale Composition and Pore Structure Controls on Gas Storage Potential of Silurian Marine Shale and Jurassic Lacustrine Shale, Central China: Y. Hou, S. He, N. Harris, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, C. Cheng • Late Mesozoic Volcanic Activities of the Songliao Basin, NE China: Implications for Volcanic Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: F. Meng, J. Liu*, Y. Cui • Characteristics of Pore Structures and Controlling Factors of the Lower Paleozoic Marine Shales in the Western Region of Middle Yangtze, Central China: S. He, Y. Wang, B. Zhang, Y. Hou, C. Cheng • Shale Fracture Characteristics and Its Main Controlling Factors in the Southeast of Chongqing: W. Zeng • Absorbed Gas Content and its Controlling Factors of the Lower Paleozoic Marine Shale in the Sichuan Basin, Southwest China: Y. Wang, L. Liu • A Probability of Jurassic Continental Shale Gas in the Tarim Basin, NW China: Petrologic, Geochemical and Reservoir Beds Conditions: Y. Wang, X. Gao, L. Liu • Geological Features, Main Types and Resource Potential of Tight Sandstone Gas in China: L. Jianzhong, G. Bincheng*, L. Xin • What Control Biogenic Gas Formation in Qaidam Basin, China: Y. Shuai, S. Zhang, S. Grasby, Z. Chen THEME 5 Diagenetic Effects on Clastic Reservoirs - Climate and Weathering Controls (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: C. Macaulay, K. Benison and R. Scheerhorn • The Diagenesis Study of Tight Sandstone Reservoir of Lower Cretaceous in The Steep Slope Aera of Baiyinchagan Depression, Erlian Basin, China: Y. Ji, Y. Zhou • Porosity Evolution Model Analysis of Sandstones in Sedimentary Basins: A Case Study from Ordos Basin: H. Shi • Evolution of Diagenetic Fluids in Red Beds Reservoirs of Eocene Dongying Depression: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions: J. Wang, Y. Cao, M. Feely, G. Song • Leached Secondary Porosity by Meteoric Water in the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation of the Ordos Basin, China: Y. Lan, S. Huang, K. Huang • Petrology and Porosity Development of the Oligocene and Eocene Sandstones of the Wasco Oil Field, Central San Joaquin, California, USA: O. E. Olabisi, R. A. Horton*, A. B. Kaess, S. E. Caffee • Simulation Experiments on Sandstone Mechanical Compaction Diagenetic and Its Physical Properties Evolution: K. Xi, Y. Cao, J. Wang, G. Yuan, T. Yang



THEME 5 SEPM Research Symposium-Depositional Systems and Sedimentology of Shale and Tight-Sand Reservoirs Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: S. Egenhoff, A. Carroll and B. Zempolich • Depositional Environment and Sedimentary Facies of the Proximal Middle Devonian (Givetian) Geneseo Formation of New York, USA: R. D. Wilson, J. Schieber • Study on the Fine-grained Sediments and Tight Light Oil of Chang 7 Formation in Upper Triassic, Ordos Basin, China: S. Lin, C. Zou, X. Yuan • Anatomy and Sequence Architecture of the Early Post-Rift in Central Neuquén Basin (Argentina): Implications for Unconventional Reservoirs: E. Schwarz, G. Veiga, L. A. Spalletti, J. L. Massaferro • Insights into the Appalachian Basin Middle Devonian Depositional System From U-Pb Zircon Geochronology of Volcanic Ashes in the Marcellus Shale and Onondaga Limestone: C. Parrish, J. Toro, A. Weislogel, J. Hayward, J. Wooden • Recognition Criteria for Distinguishing Between Hemipelagic and Pelagic Mudrocks in the Characterization of Deepwater Reservoir Heterogeneity: J. Ochoa, J. Wolak, M. Gardner • Application of a Depositional and Sequence-Stratigraphic Model for Geocellular Modeling of the Woodford Formation, Oklahoma: K. Hlava, D. Alfred, B. Ramirez, J. Rodriguez • On Climate, Weathering, and Siliciclastic Sedimentation in Tropical Lacustrine Rift Basins: M. McGlue, S. Ivory, G. Ellis, A. Boehlke, M. Blome, A. Cohen, R. Lyons, C. Scholz • Fine-Grain Sediment Dispersal Pathways During the Late Pleistocene in Canterbury Basin, South Island of New Zealand: T. Villasenor, J. M. Jaeger • Clay Mineralogy and Cation Exchange in the Marcellus Shale: P. Staub, P. Benelli, T. Bank, R. Giese • Experimental Measurement of and Diagenetic and Depositional Controls on the Permeability of Caprock and Tight Reservoir Lithologies at the Krechba Field, Algeria: P. Armitage, R. H. Worden, D. Faulkner, A. Butcher, A. Aplin, N. Clark • Comparing Geologic Proxies of Prolific U. S. Shale Gas and Oil Shale Basins with Emerging European Shale Gas and Oil Shale Plays — The Development of a Comprehensive On-line Database: T. Ochmanski, M. Hofmann*, A. T. Halamski, M. Hendrix, P. Luczynski, W. Kozlowski, J. Trzcinski, K. Wójcik • Distribution and Origin of Carbonate Cements in Paleogene Nearshore Subaqueous Lacustrine Fans of Dongying Depression of Bohai Bay Basin in China: L. Zhang, W. Yang, X. Luo, Y. Gao, S. Liu, H. Luo • The Reservoir Geology of Mudrocks: C. D. Hall • Fecal Pellets and their Significance in Unconventional Resource Shales: Part I: Physical and Petrophysical Properties: R. M. Slatt, N. O’Brien, E. J. Torres, R. Philp • Subsurface Stratigraphic Distribution and Evolution of the Upper Cretaceous Coals, Williams Fork and Related Formations, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado: Implications for Source Rocks in the Basin-centered Gas Accumulation: P. Weimer, S. Cumella, J. NIcolette, K. Schwendeman, M. Leibovitz, R. Bouroullec, E. Gustason, D. Nummedal • Sequence Stratigraphic Evolution of the Late Cretaceous Shorelines from Subsurface Studies, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado: Implications for Reservoirs in the Basin-centered Gas Accumulation: P. Weimer, S. Cumella, K. Schwendeman, J. Nicolette, M. Leibovitz, R. Bouroullec, E. Gustason, D. Nummedal • Atlas of Cretaceous Gas Fields, Piceance Basin, Northwest Colorado: Tight Gas Sandstones and the Evolving Niobrara Play: N. Rogers, S. Cumella, P. Weimer*, M. Leibovitz



• Subsurface Stratigraphic Distribution and Evolution of the Upper Cretaceous Fluvial Sandstones and Related Deposits, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado: Implications for Reservoirs and Regional Seals in the Basin-centered Gas Accumulation: P. Weimer, S. Cumella, R. Wild, M. Leibovitz, J. Nicolette, K. Schwendeman, J. Cantwell, R. Bouroullec, E. Gustason, D. Nummedal • Subsurface Stratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous Lower Mancos Shale and Related Units, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado: N. Rogers, P. Weimer, S. Cumella, E. Gustason, D. Nummedal THEME 5 Source-to-Sink Sedimentary Systems (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: A. Weislogel and R. Abegg • Sediment Budgets and Depositional Processes Influencing Submarine Canyon Systems, Equatorial Guinea, West Africa: Z. R. Jobe • Provenance of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta, Canada: Reconstructing an Ancient Source-to-Sink System: C. S. Benyon, A. Leier, D. Leckie, A. Webb, S. M. Hubbard, G. Gehrels • Effects of Climate Scenarios in a Small-Scale Shelf-Slope-Basin Model: Implications to Source-to-Sink Dynamics: D. B. da Silva, R. Manica, E. Puhl, A. Viana • Impact of Facies and Tectonics on Provenance Signal in the Eastern North Sea Basin: Miocene Fluvio-Deltaic Sand Assessed by Zircon Ages and Heavy Minerals: M. Olivarius, E. S. Rasmussen, V. Siersma, C. Knudsen, T. F. Kokfelt, N. Keulen • Sedimentary Characteristics of Shallow Delta Deposits in the Lower Part of Minghuazhen Formation of the BZ 19-4 Oil Fields: Y. Nanxin • Unconfined Flow Deposits in Front Sandbodies of Shallow Water Deltaic Distributary Systems: Examples From the Yellow River Mouth Sag, Offshore Bohai Sea, China: X. Zhang, L. Tian, X. Zhou, C. Niu • Seismic Geomorphology and Stratigraphy of Coalescing Slope Apron in Taibei Depression, East China Sea: R. Guo, C. Liu, J. Liang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang • Shallow Water Delta and Beach Bar Mixed Deposition Model During Lake Level Fluctuation in E1f1 of Gaoyou Sag, East China: H. Lu, Y. Ji, Y. Liu, C. Shang, Q. Li, Y. Wang, M. Li

THEME 6 Porosity Creation in Carbonate Reservoirs (SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: P. Harris, P. Wright and J. W. Bishop • Grayburg Formation (Permian, Lower Guadalupian) UpliftRelated Porosity-Permeability Enhancement, Permian Basin, USA: R. F. Lindsay • A Kras Redefinition — or: What to Call Subsurface Dissolution: H. G. Machel • Diagenesis of the Central Luconia Carbonates: The Roles of Late and High Temperature Corrosive Fluids in Enhancing Reservoir Quality: M. Y. Ali • The Origin of Micro Pores in the Upper Ordovician Lianglitage Group Carbonate Reservoir Within Tazhong No. I Slope Break Zone, Tarim Basin, China: Z. Bo • Evolution of Greenhouse-to-Icehouse Meteoric Diagenesis in an Isolated Carbonate Platform and Its Effects on Porosity and Permeability Networks in Subsurface Reservoirs, Tengiz Reservoir, Kazakhstan: D. A. Katz, K. Hillbun, T. Playton, P. M. Harris, J. Humphrey, J. Hsieh

• Controls on Hydrothermal Fluid Flow and Porosity Evolution in the Arbuckle Group and Overlying Units: B. D. King, R. H. Goldstein • Effect and Spatial Distribution of Reservoir Character in the Fault-Related Dolomite Bodies, Upper Cretaceous Ramales Formation (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, NW Spain): M. Shah, I. U. Haq THEME 7 Water Risks and Mitigation Strategies in Unconventional Development (DEG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: K. Rose and J. H. Williams • Modeling Flowback Chemistry at Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing: V. N. Balashov, S. L. Brantley, T. Engelder • Assessing Environmental Impacts of Horizontal Gas Well Drilling Operations: P. Ziemkiewicz, J. Hause • Development of a Methodology to Evaluate Potential Fluid Migration Pathways From Deep Shale Units to Surficial Aquifers in a Context of Shale Gas Production: C. Rivard, R. Lefebvre, D. Lavoie, S. Sejourne, M. J. duch*esne, J. Ahad, N. Benoit, B. Wang, A. Pugin, C. Lamontagne • Single Stranded DNA as a Source-Specific Hydrogeology Tracer: J. Chow, J. Rudulph, P. Weiner • Stable Isotopic and Geochemical Spatial Analysis of Surface Waters in an Area of Rapidly Expanding Marcellus Shale Development in the Monongahela River Basin of West Virginia: A. J. Pelak, S. Sharma • Character and Origin of Flowback Brine from Marcellus Gas Wells in Pennsylvania: A. W. Rose, L. Haluszczak, L. Kump • The Strontium Isotopic and Geochemical Evolution of Produced Waters From the Marcellus Formation: R. C. Capo, B. W. Stewart, E. L. Rowan, A. J. Wall, E. C. Chapman, K. Schroder, R. W. Hammack • Facilitating Shale Play Development in Pennsylvania — Meeting the Need for Nearby Brine Disposal Wells: D. E. Skoff, D. A. Billman • Adaptive Water/Energy Management Solutions From Regional to Global Scale: G. M. Hanson • Shallow Groundwater and Soil Chemistry Response to Three Years of Subsurface Drip Irrigation Using Coalbed Methane Produced Water: M. Engle, C. R. Bern, A. Boehlke, N. J. Geboy, K. Schroder, J. W. Zupancic • The Cincinnati Group as a Caprock: Implications for Utica Production and CO2 Sequestration: M. Hawrylak, J. Daniels, A. Cook, E. Bair, S. Welch, J. Sheets, A. Swift • Probing the Influence of Reactions Between Fracture Fluids and Marcellus Shale on the Composition of Major Ion and Trace Element Fluid Chemistry in Flowback Waters: A. Hakala, C. Joseph, V. Marcon, T. Bank, S. Hedges, T. R. Malizia, P. Mouser, S. Liu • The Evolution of Coalbed Reservoir Fluids From Outcrop into the Basin: Applying Isotopic and Geochemical Techniques to Define Fluid Pathways and Methanogenic Processes, with Implications for Coalbed Natural Gas Production: S. A. Quillinan, C. D. Frost, J. F. McLauglin • Well Infrastructure and Geologic Setting at NETL’s Marcellus Shale Test Site in Greene County, Pennsylvania: R. W. Hammack

THEME 8 Analysis of Sedimentary Basins and Petroleum Systems (AAPG/SEPM) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: K. Dick and J. Pashin

• Tectono-Sequence Stratigraphy of Lower Cretaceous in Tamtsag Basin, Mongolia: Sequence Architecture, Depositional Systems, and Controls on Sediment Infill: Y. Zhou, Y. Ji • Paleocene Deepwater Frontal Spalys, Cretaceous Pre-Basaltic Tilted Half — Grabens and Their Significance in Hydrocarbon Prospectivity, Kerala-Konkan Basin, Western Offshore, India: D. K. Panda, S. K. Sahu, D. K. Jha, R. Sundriyal, G. Ram • Structural Controls on the Stratigraphic Architecture of NetTransgressive Shallow-Marine Reservoirs in a Salt-influenced Rift Basin: Middle-to-Upper Jurassic Egersund Basin, Norwegian North Sea: A. Mannie, C. A. Jackson, G. J. Hampson • Quantifying the Uplift Magnitude Caused by the Messinian Salinity Crisis and Its Impact on the Eastern Mediterranean Petroleum Systems: A. N. Al-Balushi, A. Fraser, P. A. Allen, C. A. Jackson • Implications for Tectonic Control on Paleogeography and Sediment Dispersal Pathway: Integrated U-Pb Detrital Zircon Age-analysis of the Paleogene Missouri River Headwater System, SW Montana: D. E. Barber, R. K. Schwartz, A. Weislogel, L. Schricker, R. C. Thomas • Influence of Silica Diagenesis on Seal Development: Insights from 3-D Seismic Reflection and Well Data From the Norwegian Margin: T. Wrona, C. A. Jackson, M. Huuse, K. G. Taylor • Porosity, Permeability, Overpressure and Effective Stress Evolution in the Auger Basin, Gulf of Mexico: B. Gao, P. Flemings • Physical Properties Cutoff and Controlling Factors of Effective Reservoir of Middle-Lower Third Member of Shahejie Formation of the Yonganzhen Area in Dongying Depression, Bohaiwan Basin, China: J. Liu, Y. Cao, T. Fan, J. Wang • Depositional and Burial Domain Influences on Microporosity Modalities in Carbonaceous Mudstones of the Upper Cretaceous Colorado Group, Western Canada Foreland Basin: P. Jiang, B. Cheadle* • Authigenic Minerals and Diagenetic Evolution in Altered Volcanics and Their Impacts on Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: Evidence from Lower Permian in Northwestern Margin of Junggar Basin, China: Z. Shifa, Z. Shifa • Thermal Evolution of the Paleozoic Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Sichuan Basin: A Joint Inversion Result of Ro Data and Thermochronological Modeling: C. Zhu, S. Hu, S. Rao • Thermal History and Hydrocarbon Kitchen Evolution in the Jianghan Basin: Z. Li, Y. Zhao, C. Liu, P. Zhao • A Quantitative Assessment of Lateral Variability in a Cyclic Alluvial Succession Using Terrestrial LIDAR Data: Paleocene Nacimiento Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: J. Carritt, J. Frechette, C. Bodman, G. Weissmann • Combining High-Resolution Digital Imagery and Terrestrial LIDAR to Quantify Bounding Surface Hierarchy for Use in Subsurface Fluid Flow Models: A. Pickel, J. Frechette, G. Weissmann

THEME 9 Extensional Tectonics: Implications for Tectonostratigraphic Evolution and Play Element Prediction (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: J. Callot and O. N. Pearson • Seismic Refraction Profiles Indicate a History of Syn-Rift Volcanism and Seafloor-Spreading in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico: D. Eddy, G. Christeson, H. van Avendonk, I. Norton, G. Karner, C. Johnson, E. Kneller, J. Snedden • Tectonic Evolution of Tarim Basin in Cambrian-Ordovician and the Implication for Reservoir Development: B. Yu, J. Li • Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolvement and Oil Gas Accumulation in Qaidam Foreland Basin, China: F. Zhao



• Oblique Rift System in Caswell Sub-Basin, Browse Basin (NW Shelf, Australia): Insights From 3-D Seismic Interpretation and Structural Modeling: L. Wu, C. F. Kluth, B. D. Trudgill • Models of Fault Transfer Zones in Rift Settings: Insights From Laser Scanned Clay Models: D. Paul, S. Mitra • Discussion on Mesozoic Basin Patterns and Evolution in The Eastern North China Block: Z. Wu, W. Li, S. Yan • Distinctive Two Stage Syn-Rift Activities of the Backarc Ulleung Basin, Korea, and Implications for New Plays: K. A. Lee, B. Woo, B. Park, S. Huh, E. Roh, B. Choi* • Extensional Faulting and Related Fold Evolution Along the Oseberg Øst Fault System, Norwegian North Sea: J. P. de Boer, R. Gawthorpe, C. A. Jackson, I. Sharp, P. Whipp • Has the Western Greenland Continental Margin Experienced Depth-Dependent Stretching?: S. Alsulami, D. A. Paton, D. Cornwell, G. Stuart • Mobile Salt Thickness as a Control on the Structural Style and Evolution Of Rift Basins: Danish Central Graben, North Sea: O. B. Duffy, R. Gawthorpe, S. H. Brocklehurst, M. Docherty • The Influence of Synrift Salt on Deformation During and After Rifting: Examples From the Orpheus Rift Basin, Offshore Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada: B. R. Hanafi, M. O. Withjack*, R. W. Schlische, Z. Syamsir, M. A. Durcanin • Shifting Pattern of Divergent and Convergent Plate Boundaries in Oceanic Regions: K. S. Misra, A. Misra

THEME 9 Impact of Faulting, Fracturing, and Stress in Shale and Tight Reservoirs (AAPG) Exhibition Hall • 8:30 a.m.–12:00 p.m. Co-Chairs: E. Ukar and T. B. Warner • Characteristics and Origin of Microfracture in Lower Cretaceous Tight Sandstone from Kuqa Foreland Basin, NW China: L. Chun • Horizontal Permeability Anisotropy in Intact Tight Reservoir and Caprock Samples Caused by In-Situ Stress Anisotropy: P. Armitage, R. H. Worden, D. Faulkner, O. Blake • Fault Displacement Gradients and Associated Deformation on Normal Faults: A. P. Morris, R. N. McGinnis, D. A. Ferrill • Marcellus Fullbore-Resistivity Image Logs: The Bearing of Regional Structures and Stratigraphy on Steeply-Dipping Fractures: T. B. Warner, R. Jacobi • Physical Modeling of Fluid Overpressure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Source Rocks in Various Tectonic Contexts: A. Zanella, P. R. Cobbold • Fracturing in Basin Models, Application to the Barnett Formation in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas: W. Sassi, L. Milelli, M. Gasparrini • Dynamic Branched Fractures in Pulverized Rocks From a Deep Borehole: D. Korngreen, A. Sagy • Peeking into Continent-Building Processes Through the Bogda Window, Turpan-Junggar Basin, NW China: W. Yang, J. L. Crowley, J. Obrist, Q. Feng, Y. Liu, N. Tabor, X. Luo

Wednesday Afternoon Oral Sessions THEME 1 Worldwide Unconventional Reservoirs (AAPG/EMD) Room 301/302/303/304/305 Chair: S. Egenhoff 1:15


Introductory Remarks



1:40 2:00


2:40 3:25





Shale Gas Potential of Lower Goru Formation Over Lakhra High in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan: A. Hussain, F. Iqbal Siddiqui, M. Khan, A. Adhami Status of Unconventional Shale Gas Exploration in India: A. S. Boruah Geothermal Gradient Estimate in Pilot Study Areas of Gas Hydrates in the Colombia Caribbean Sea: A. E. Calle, A. Vesga The Distribution Pattern of SRV Fractures in Horizontal Shale Gas Well, Lacustrine Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China: X. Wang, R. Gao, L. Zhang, F. Shen, J. Wu, J. Zhang, Q. Guo, Q. Liang Break Seismic Characterization for Tight Gas Sand With 3D3C Data: Y. Zhou, C. Peng, D. Wang, S. Xu, M. Xia, X. Zhang, D. Daoyong, R. Yan, Y. Zhang Challenges to Explore Shallow Sandstone Reservoir for Optimized Unconventional Development Strategy in Kuwait: H. Ferdous, P. Chaudhary, F. Ahmad, F. Abbas, K. Ahmed, J. Llerena, I. Sammak Origin and Evolution of Waters in the Hancheng Coal Seams, the Ordos Basin, as Revealed From Water Chemistry and Isotope (H, O, 129I) Analyses: M. Xingzhi, S. Yan, S. Liu, J. Lin, H. Feng Characteristics and Models for Deposition and Accumulation of Gas Hydrate in Northern Continental Slope, South China Sea: J. Wang, X. Yu, S. Li, X. Zeng, W. Li Fractured Reservoir Prediction — A Case Study in the Sichuan Basin: Y. Ling, X. Guo, Q. Song

THEME 6 High Resolution Chronostratigraphy of Carbonate Systems and Reservoirs (AAPG/SEPM) Room 317/318 Co-Chairs: T. Playton, T. Rasbury and J. Humphrey 1:15 1:20




2:40 3:25


Introductory Remarks Uncertainties of Extracting Amplitude and Frequency of Orbitally Driven Sea-Level Fluctuations from ShallowWater Carbonate Cycles: G. P. Eberli Suborbital Sea-Level Oscillations During the Last Interglacial Highstand (MIS 5e): Evidence from New Providence Platform, Bahamas: K. L. Jackson, G. Eberli, S. B. Reid, P. Harris, D. F. McNeill Stable Carbon Isotopes for Constraining Sequence Stratigraphic and Paleogeographic Interpretations of Carbonate Successions: Fact or Fantasy?: S. C. Ruppel, H. Rowe Direct In Situ Dating of Carbonates by LA-ICP-(MC)MS and Its Applications to Chronostratigraphy: R. R. Parrish, T. Rasbury Break Development of Regional Stratigraphic Frameworks and Geological Implications in Upper Devonian Carbonates Using Integrated Chronostratigraphy, Canning Basin, Western Australia: T. Playton, D. Katz, K. Hillbun, E. Tohver, R. Hocking, P. Haines, K. Trinajstic, P. Montgomery, J. Hansma, S. Pisarevsky, J. Kirschvink, M. Yan, K. Ratcliffe Application of Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy as a Chronostratigraphic Tool in Upper Devonian Carbonate Slopes: Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia: K. Hillbun, D. Katz, T. Playton, E. Lewarch, K. Trinajstic, E. Tohver, P. Haines, J. Hansma, R. Hocking, J. Kirschvink, M. Yan, K. Ratcliffe, S. Pisarevsky, P. Montgomery, P. Harris, P. Ward




Use of Carbon Isotopes as a Chrononstratigraphic Tool From Outcrops and Subsurface Core of the Mississippian Madison Limestone, Wyoming and Montana: D. A. Katz, M. R. Buoniconti, I. P. Montañez, P. Swart, G. Eberli, T. Smith Using Chemo and Magnetostratigraphy to Define a Chronostratigraphic Framework in an Isolated Carbonate Platform: the Tengiz Field, Republic of Kazakhstan: K. T. Ratcliffe, M. Urbat, E. Davies, T. Playton, D. A. Katz High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Chemostratigraphy of the Niobrara Formation, Denver Basin, Colorado: J. D. Humphrey, L. Stout, L. Canter, K. Nakamura

1:40 2:00


2:40 3:25

THEME 9 Geomechanical Modeling of Natural and Stimulated Reservoirs (AAPG) Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: R. Shackleton and L. Chiaramonte


1:15 1:20





Introductory Remarks Constraining Geomechanical Models of Hydraulic Fractures Using Seismic Moment Tensors: T. Urbancic, A. Baig, S. Goldstein A Unique Mechanical Method to Predict the Density and Distribution of Natural Fractures From Well Logs: M. Welch, R. K. Davies, R. J. Knipe An Integrated Geomechanical and Microseismic Study of Multi-Well Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation in The Bakken Formation: Y. Yang, M. Zoback, M. Simon, T. Dohmen Geomechanical Response of the Tubåen Fm: A Compartmentalized CO2 Storage Reservoir, Snøhvit Norway: L. Chiaramonte, J. A. White, P. Ringrose



THEME 5 Diagenetic Effects on Clastic Reservoirs – Climate and Weathering Controls (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: C. Macaulay, K. Benison and R. Scheerhorn 1:15 1:20

THEME 9 Fault Analysis and Fault Controlled Traps (AAPG) Room 319/320/321 Co-Chairs: C. A. Jackson and P. N. Gusev 3:20 3:25

3:45 4:05

4:25 4:45

Introductory Remarks Defining a Trap: Implications of (Not) Understanding Fault Dimensions From Seismic Data in Exploration and Production: A. Rotevatn, H. Fossen Hierarchical Fault and Fracture Prediction: W. Athmer, A. Bounaim, L. Sønneland The Role of Polygonal Fault Mapping in De-Risking Deep Water Reservoir Presence: A 3-D Seismic Reflection Case Study from Offshore Norway: C. A. Jackson, S. Mahlo, O. Briggs Petrophysical Properties of Deformation Band Fault Zones in the Entrada Sandstone, Utah: K. Fredericks Fault Sealing Processes at Ceiba Field, Offshore West Africa: J. Goode, C. Clechenko, W. F. Dula, B. Kilsdonk, S. Mondziel

THEME 2 World Class Resources Emerge from a Historic Basin II (AAPG) Room 403/404/405 Co-Chairs: L. J. Morris and S. McCleery 1:15 1:20

Introductory Remarks Taking the Utica to Its Depositional Limits: Through Facies Changes and Across the Entire Appalachian, Illinois and Michigan Basins: R. A. Williams, D. L. Leighton

Mapping With LIDAR-Based DEMs — A Geologist’s New Tool: T. G. Whitfield Continued Evaluation of the Hydrocarbon Potential of the Utica/Point Pleasant in Eastern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania: J. Reed, S. W. Brown, J. E. Zumberge Hydrocarbon Resources in the Upper Ordovician Black Shales in Quebec (Eastern Canada): From Gas/ Condensate in the Utica to Oil in the Macasty: D. Lavoie, R. Thériault, S. Sejourne, R. Lefebvre, X. Mallet Break Geologic Overview and Activity Update for the UticaPoint Pleasant Shale Play in Ohio: C. J. Perry, R. A. Riley, M. S. Erenpreiss The Time-Transgressive Deposition of the Utica Shale in New York Revealed Using Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy: J. G. Metzger, D. Fike, T. Smith Identification of Future Oil Potential From Upper Devonian Venango Sandstones in Central Appalachians: E. G. Ober, C. Eckert Sequence Stratigraphic Framework Approach for the Identification and Mapping of Upper Devonian Siltstones in Northern West Virginia, Appalachian Basin: C. Eckert, E. G. Ober, S. McCallum Appalachian Basin Structural Styles — A “Bottoms Up” Approach to Understanding Play Types and Depositional Controls: B. J. Carney




Introductory Remarks Stacked Sandstones — Litharenite Seal and Quartzarenite Reservoir: Synsedimentary Pedogenic and Groundwater Diagenesis in Jurassic Paleovalley Sandstones, Medicine River Jurassic “D” Pool, Medicine River Area, Alberta, Canada: F. F. Krause, A. F. Mellor, A. Wiseman, C. Debuhr Influence of Climate on the Early Diagenesis of Triassic and Jurassic Sediments: R. Weibel, M. Olivarius, H. Friis, L. Nielsen, A. Mathiesen Marine Fine-Grained Sediment Tortuosity Derived From the Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Organo-Clay Fabric at the Nanometer Scale: J. R. Douglas, K. Curry, R. Bennett, A. Head Regional Variation in Detrital Composition, Diagenesis, and Reservoir Quality of Deep Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Sandstones, Gulf of Mexico, USA: S. P. Dutton, W. A. Ambrose, R. G. Loucks

THEME 5 Source-to-Sink Sedimentary Systems (SEPM) Room 406 Co-Chairs: R. Abegg and A. Weislogel 3:20 3:25 3:45 4:05

Introductory Remarks Non-Equilibrium Source-to-Sink Systems: Controls and Examples: O. J. Martinsen, T. Sømme Climatic Versus Eustatic Controls on Sediment Flux to the Indus Submarine Fan, Indian Ocean: P. Clift Multiple Provenances on Predicting Reservoir Quality: ‘Source to Sink’ Sedimentation in a Dryland FluvialAeolian System, Western Lake Eyre Basin, Central





Australia: S. Menacherry, T. Payenberg, S. Lang, W. Heins The Importance of Fractured Olistoliths and Shelf-Gravel Sorting for the Construction of a Tectonically-Controlled Carpathian Margin, Albian Bucegi Conglomerates, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: C. Olariu, D. C. Jipa, R. J. Steel, C. Ungureanu Reservoir Development in Volcanic Provinces: A. Hartley, A. Ebinghaus, D. Jolley, M. Hole, A. Barker, R. Taylor, J. Millett

2:00 2:20

2:40 3:25

3:45 THEME 10 Microseismic Methods Relevant to Fracturing and Exploration Geophysics (AAPG) Room 407 Co-Chairs: W. Harbert and T. Jordan 1:15 1:20 1:40



2:40 3:25


4:05 4:25 4:45

Introductory Remarks Estimating Event Growth From Pumped Fluid Volumes: J. P. McKenna, Q. Bui, D. Abbott, D. Domalakes Imaging Fracture Networks With Ambient Seismicity: A. Lacazette, S. Fereja, C. Sicking, J. Vermilye, P. Geiser, L. Thompson Assessing the Impact of Recording Geometry on Microseismic Data: An Example From the Marcellus: J. Hnat, A. Reynolds, W. Langin, J. Le Calvez, J. Tan Characterization of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Using Microseismic Data: Y. Tan, R. Zhou, T. Engelder, S. Maxwell, M. Mueller, M. P. Thornton Break Using Microseismicity to Identify Changes in Fracture Behavior During Hydraulic Fracture Stimulations: T. Urbancic, A. Baig, K. Kocon, K. Tremblay Using Microseismicity to Understand Subsurface Fracture Systems and Increase the Effectiveness of Completions: Eagle Ford Shale, TX: J. Detring, S. Williams-Stroud Source Mechanism Analysis to Determine Optimal Wellbore Orientation in the Eagle Ford Play: C. Telker The Magnitude vs. Distance Plot: A Tool for Fault Reactivation Identification: C. Cabarcas A More Complete Catalog of the 2011 Youngstown, Ohio Earthquake Sequence From Template Matching Reveals a Strong Correlation to Pumping at a Wastewater Injection Well: S. Holtkamp, B. Currie, M. R. Brudzinski

THEME 1 Shale Plays of China (AAPG) Room 408/409/410 Co-Chairs: Y. Ju and S. Jiang 1:15 1:20



Introductory Remarks Reservoir Quality, Hydrocarbon Mobility and Implications for Lacustrine Shale Oil Productivity in the Paleogene Sequence, Bohai Bay Basin: M. Li, Z. Li, Q. Jiang Comparison Between Marine Shales and Lacustrine Shales in China: S. Jiang, N. Dahdah, P. Pahnke, J. Zhang





Characteristics and Resource Potential of Lacustrine Shale Oil and Gas in China: Z. Jin Shale Characteristics and Gas Bearing Controlling Factors in Wufeng Formation and Longmaxi Formation in Southeast Chongqing, China: J. Tieya, Z. Jinchuan, T. Xuan Break Preliminary Research on the Potential of Terrestrial Shale Oil in China: A Case Study of Upper Triassic Shale in the Ordos Basin: C. Zou, S. Wu*, Z. Yang, R. Zhu, S. Tao, B. Bai, X. Zhai Petrology of Siltstone Laminae in Zhangjiatan Shale of the 7th Member of Yanchang Formation and Their Significance for Shale Gas, Ordos Basin, China: Y. Lei, X. Wang, X. Luo, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Jiang, M. Cheng, Y. Yu Study on the Experienced Highest Paleotemperature and Thermal Maturity Evolution of the Lower Paleozoic Marine Shales in the West of Middle Yangtze Region, Central China: J. Zhang, S. He, J. Yi, Y. Hou Organic Matter Characteristics in Silurian Marine Mudstone and Factors to Shale Gas Accumulation in Sichuan Basin, China: X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Lv, J. Yan, T. Zhang Lacustrine Shale Gas Exploration in Yanchang Exploratory Block: X. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Jiang, B. Sun, C. Gao, B. Fang, B. Fan

THEME 1 Unconventional Reservoirs: The State of the Art (AAPG) Room 413/414/415 Co-Chairs: J. Gale and H. Cander 1:15 1:20


2:00 2:20

2:40 3:25 3:45

4:05 4:25


Introductory Remarks Tight Shale Heterogeneity and Pore Structure at the Nanometer to Centimeter Scale: J. Schieber, R. Newhart, S. Green, R. Suarez-Rivera, P. Gathogo, J.Petriello, W. Huster Shale Gas Reservoir Families — Translating Sequence Stratigraphy into Robust Predictions of Reservoir Distribution and Potential: K. Bohacs, R. Lazar, J. Ottmann, K. Potma, T. Demko Quantifying Natural Fracture Spatial Organization: Application in Shales: J. Gale Cores Behind the Outcrop, Vertical and Horizontal Facies Variability: D. Minisini, J. S. Eldrett, R. Forkner, O. Aysen, S. Bergman, C. Macaulay Break Shale Gas Geochemistry Mythbusting: H. Dembicki Thermal and Pore Pressure History of the Haynesville Shale in North Louisiana: A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study: W. Torsch, J. Nunn* Trace Elements and Basin Processes: Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, West Texas: N. B. Harris Laboratory Measurements of Matrix Permeability and Slippage Enhanced Permeability in Gas Shales: R. Heller, J. Vermylen, M. Zoback Experience and Impact of Measuring Permeability on Intact Samples at Reservoir Conditions for Unconventional Shales: R. Rosen, T. Kosanke*, M. Sharf-Aldin, W. Mickelson, R. Patterson, F. Mir, M. Paiangle, B. Kurtoglu, B. Ramirez, T. Baker

E D U C AT I O N C A L E N D A R *Denotes new entries or revisions. **New AAPG course or field seminar. For complete details contact: AAPG Education Department P.O. Box 979 Tulsa, OK 74101-0979 USA Phone: 918-560-2650 Fax: 918-560-2678 E-Mail: [emailprotected]

AAPG Home Page http://www.aapg.org Browse our Continuing Education section. Click the Education box on our home page.

Application of Maturation/Organic Facies, Geochemistry, and Petroleum System Modeling for the Shale Gas/Shale Oil Resource Evaluation May 23, Pittsburgh (with AAPG Annual Convention)

Schools and Short Courses Basic Well Log Analysis April 15–19, Austin, TX July 22–26, Golden, CO Carbonates School April 16–18, Austin, TX Basic Tools for Shale Exploration May 18, Pittsburgh (with AAPG Annual Convention) Integrating Data from Source-Rock and Reservoir Fluid Samples to Evaluate Oil/GasShale Resources Across the E&P Lifecycle May 18–19, Pittsburgh (with AAPG Annual Convention) Faults in the Northern Appalachian Basin and Their Effects on The Black Shale May 19, Pittsburgh (with AAPG Annual Convention)

Geology of Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon and Zion National Park June 1–7, Nevada

Summer Education Conference June 10–14, Fort Worth, TX Applied Structural Geology August 19–23, Jackson Hole, WY Fractured Reservoirs September 9–13, Casper, WY Fall Education Conference October 14–18, Houst on


Clastic Reservoir Facies April 20–26, Utah

Play Concepts and Controls on Porosity June 2–7, Almeria, Spain

Folding, Thrusting & Syntectonic Sedimentation June 3–7, Barcelona, Spain

Lacustrine Basin Exploration June 9–16, Utah

Practical Salt Tectonics November 4–7, Houston, TX Seismic Interpretation in Fold-and-Thrust Belts July 21–27, Alberta, Canada

Geosciences Technology Workshops Geomechanics July 15–17, Baltimore, MD

Fractures, Folds and Faults in Thrusted Terrains July 22–27, Montana

Structure, Tectonics & Sedimentary Basin Analysis August 17–25, Montana

Field Seminars Modern Terrigenous Clastic Depositional Systems April 5–12; October 14–21, South Carolina Deep-Water Siliciclastic Reservoirs April 14–19, California


Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphic Response of Paralic Deposits September 19–26, Colorado/Utah

Complex Carbonate Reservoirs September 28–Oct. 4, Italy

DIRECTORY OF ASSOCIATED & AFFILIATED SOCIETIES AAPG ASSOCIATED INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AASP—THE PALYNOLOGICAL SOCIETY c/o Paul K. Strother Weston Observatory of Boston College Palaeobotanical Laboratory, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics 381 Concord Road, Weston, Massachusetts 02493 E-mail: [emailprotected] or [emailprotected] Web site: www.palynology.org

ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN GEOSCIENTISTS 1400 W. 122nd Ave., Suite 250, Westminster, Colorado 80234 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Heidi Hoffower

CIRCUM-PACIFIC COUNCIL FOR ENERGY & MINERAL RESOURCES, INC. California State University, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories 8272 Moss Landing Road, Landing, California 95039 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.circum_pacificcouncil.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H. Gary Greene

THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY c/o Edmund Nickless, Executive Secretary Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, W1J OBJ, England E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.geolsoc.org.uk

THE SOCIETY FOR ORGANIC PETROLOGY c/o AGI, 4220 King St., Alexandria, Virginia 22302 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.tsop.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Isabel Suarez-Ruiz

AAPG AFFILIATED SOCIETIES ALBANIA National Scientific Center of Hydrocarbons Lagja 1 Maj, Fier, Albania E-mail: [emailprotected] Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ilia Fili Meets in November in Fier.

ARGENTINA ASOCIACIÓN ARGENTINA DE GEÓLOGOS Y GEOFÍSICOS PETROLEROS Maipu 645 – 1° Piso, Casa del Geólogo. Oficina del CSPGC 1006 ACG Buenos Aires, Argentina E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.aaggp.org.ar President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luis Osvaldo Rebori Annual meeting June 9; monthly meetings by announcement



3300 Penrose Place, P.O. Box 9140 Boulder, Colorado 80301 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.geosociety.org

Maipu 645 – 1° Piso, Casa del Geólogo. Oficina del CSPG C 1006 ACG Buenos Aires, Argentina E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .George Herbert Davis

Meets monthly at society headquarters.



President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vera Pawlowsky-Glahn

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF BLACK GEOLOGISTS AND GEOPHYSICISTS 723 Main Street, Suite 1006, Houston Texas 77002 (Physical Address) 4212 San Felipe, Suite 420, Houston Texas 77027 (Mailing Address) E-mail: [emailprotected] Home Page: http://www.nabgg.com/ President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michael Carroll

SOCIETY OF INDEPENDENT PROFESSIONAL EARTH SCIENTISTS 4925 Greenville Avenue, Suite 1106 Dallas, Texas 75206 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.sipes.org

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA LTD. 122 Erica Street, Cannon Hill, Queensland 4170 Australia E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.pesa.com.au/ President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gordon Wakelin-King Meets monthly in state capitals.

AUSTRIA AUSTRIAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY c/o Geological Survey of Austria Rasumofskygasse 23 P.O. Box 333, A-1015, Vienna, Austria E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.geol-ges.at/startenglish.htm President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Christoph Spoetl

CANADA Ann Miller-AGS, P.O. Box 2253 Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada B4P 2N5 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: ags.earthsciences.dal.ca/ags.php President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Elisabeth Kosters

CANADIAN SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS 110, 333 5th Ave Sw Calgary Alberta T2P3B6 Canada E-mail: [emailprotected] E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.cspg.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paul A. Mackay Meets bi-monthly in Calgary for technical luncheons.

Saskatchewan SASKATCHEWAN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 234 Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4P 2Z6 Society E-mail: [emailprotected] Pres. E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gavin Jensen Meets monthly.

COLOMBIA ASOCIACIÓN COLOMBIANA DE GEÓLOGOS Y GEOFÍSICOS DEL PETRÓLEO Gems S.A. Cra. 12 #98-35 Of. 304 Bogotá, Colombia (S.A.) E-mail: [emailprotected], [emailprotected] Web site: www.acggp.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cesar A. Mora Monthly meetings are by announcement. A catalog of publications and guidebooks is available from the editor.

COSTA RICA COLEGIO DE GEÓLOGOS DE COSTA RICA San José, Costa Rica E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Enid Gamboa Robles Meetings held first and third Wednesday of each month.



AZERBAIJAN SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS Kaspmorneftegaz, P.O. Box 370004 Neftyanikov Ave. 73 Baku, Azerbaijan E-mail: [emailprotected]

SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL FOR PETROLEUM Faculty of Mining, Geology & Petroleum Engineering Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb, Rep. of Croatia HR-10000 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Zvonimir Hernitz

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Akif Narimanov


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Roland Edward Chemali




President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David A. Budd

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Radoslav Nakov

Lectures, field trips, and divisional and regional meetings by announcement.


4111 S. Darlington, Suite 100 Tulsa, Oklahoma 74135-6373 E-mail: [emailprotected] (society) E-mail: [emailprotected] (president) Web site: http://www.sepm.org

1113, Sofia, Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Str., bl. 24, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria E-mail: [emailprotected]. Web site: http://www.bgd.bg

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Roberto F. Page

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dennis Michael Gleason

8866 Gulf Freeway, Suite 320, Houston, Texas, 77017 E-mail: [emailprotected] (society) E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.spwla.org




President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David Shilston

4 Cataraqui Street, Suite 310, Kingston, ON K7K 127 E-mail: [emailprotected] Home Page: http://www.iamg.org


Av. Almirante Barroso N° 52/21° Andar Centro - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.abgp.com.br/index.htm President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sylvia Anjos


CZECH GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY c/o B. Cizkova, Secretary Klarov 3, Praha l, 11821, Czech Republic E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://prfdec.natur.cuni.cz/~cgs/ President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Krystof Verner Meetings held first and third Wednesday of each month.







P.O. Box 3161, Tripoli, Libya S.P.L.A.J. E-mail: [emailprotected] E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.geolibya.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Faraj M. Said Luncheon meetings second Tuesday of the month, venue announced. Evening meetings, training courses, seminars, lectures, and field trips announced by monthly newsletter.

Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. 3rd Floor PIDC House, Dr. Ziauddin A. Road Karachi 75530 Pakistan E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.papg.org.pk Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Moin Raza Khan

Casilla 371A, Quito, Ecuador President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Hall

EGYPT EGYPT PETROLEUM EXPLORATION SOCIETY GANOPE 19, Mostafa Refaat St., Sheraton Res., Behind Abu Bakr El Sedik Heliopolis, Egypt E-mail: [emailprotected] Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hani Nassar Meetings held monthly at the Sofitel Hotel, El Maadi, Cairo.


MALAYSIA c/o Dept. of Geology University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur 50603 Malaysia E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.gsm.org.my President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joy Pereira Meets second Tuesday each month, except during fasting month.


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Isabell Le Nir

Pemex Exloración Y Producción Claustros Macuilis #10 Fracc. Club Campestre 86037 Villahermosa, Tab., Mexico E-mail: [emailprotected]




45 Rue Louis Blanc-92400 Courbevoie 92038 Paris la Defense, Cedex France E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.aftp.net

Petit Thouars 4380 Miraflores, 18 Lima, Peru Society E-mail: [emailprotected] Pres. E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jose Arce Alleva



Jagiellonian University Inst. of Geological Sciences Oleandry 2a, 30–063 Krakow, Poland E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M. Adam Gasinski Lectures, field trips, and divisional and regional meetings by announcement.

Lessenicher Straße 1, D-53123 Bonn, Germany E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jaime Patino Meets monthly at eight locations in the country.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ulrike Mattig




QATAR QATAR GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Box 7325, Doha, Qatar E-mail: [emailprotected]


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Saeed Al-Kuwari

ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS Oil & Nat. Gas Corp. Ltd. Executive Director, KDMIPE, ONGC Kaulagarh Road DEHRADUN 248195 India

PB 93, Rabat, Morocco E-mail: [emailprotected]


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Prodyut Kumar Bhowmick

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mohamed Elmostaine


Meets eight times throughout year at various locations in the country.

Executive Director, KOMPE, ONGC Kaulagaht Road Dehradun 248195 INDIA.


Str. Caransebes nr. 1, Sector 1 012271 Bucharest, Romania E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .H.K. Gupta Annual general meeting.

INDIAN ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOSCIENTISTS #F-905, Brigade Metropolis, Whitefield Main Road Garudacharpalya Bangalore 560048 India E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sudhakar Vijapurapu

IRAQ ARAB GEOLOGISTS ASSOCIATION P.O. Box 28342, Al-Karkh Post Office Al-Dawoodi, Baghdad 12631, Iraq E-mail (Secretary General): [emailprotected] Date and place of meetings vary. Executive Bureau meets every three years.

ISRAEL ISRAEL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY University of Haifa, Dept. of Maritime Civilizations Haifa, Israel E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dorit Sivan


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Antoneta Seghedi

ROYAL GEOLOGICAL AND MINING SOCIETY OF THE NETHERLANDS (KNGMG) Shell Exploration and Production Kesslerpark 1, P.O. Box 60, 2280 AB Rijswijk Netherlands E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.kngmg.nl/index.htm Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Menno J. De Ruig Meetings of Petroleum Geological Circle held at KIVI Building, Prinsessegracht 23, The Hague, third Wednesday monthly, September–June. Social hour at 5:00 p.m.; lecture at 6:00 p.m.

NEW ZEALAND NEW ZEALAND ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS New Zealand Oil & Gas LTD Level 20, 125 The Terrace P.O. Box 10725 Wellington 6001, New Zealand E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jonathan Salo


Keidanren-Kaikan Bldg, 3-2 Otemachi 1-chome Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 100-0004 Japan E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.japt.org/html/english/english.html President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hironori Wasada

Danvic Concepts International Nigeria 46 Adetoro Adelaja St off Emmanuel Kechi, Magodo GRA Ketu Lagos, Nigeria E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.nape.org.ng President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mayowa Lawrence Afe Monthly technical meetings held third Wednesday of month.





43 Aiteke bi st, Atyrau, 060011, Kazakhstan E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.ongk.kz President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Baltabek M. Kuandykov

c/o University of Stavanger Gosenkroken 23, 4041 Hafrsfjord, Norway E-mail: [emailprotected], [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Francisco Porturas Meets every third Tuesday at the University of Stavanger, 7:00 p.m.



SAUDI ARABIA DHAHRAN GEOSCIENCE SOCIETY P.O. Box 10376 Dhahran 31311 Saudi Arabia E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.dgsonline.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mahmoud E. Hedefa Meetings last Tuesday of each month, Dhahran.

SINGAPORE SOUTHEAST ASIA PETROLEUM EXPLORATION SOCIETY Tanglin PO Box 423 Singapore 912415, Republic of Singapore Society E-mail: [emailprotected] E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.seapex.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stephen Doyle Meets second Friday of all even months.

SOUTH AFRICA GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA c/o Craig Smith, Executive Manager GSSA P.O. Box 61809, Marshalltown 2107 Johannesburg, South Africa E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.gssa.org.za President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pamela Naidoo



ASOCIACIÓN DE GEÓLOGOS Y GEOFÍSICOS ESPAÑOLES DEL PETRÓLEO Paseo de Castellana, 280 28046 Madrid, Spain E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.aggep.com President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Susana Torrescusa Villaverde Meetings vary.

SWITZERLAND SWISS ASSOCIATION OF ENERGY GEOSCIENTISTS (SASEG) Holbeinstrasse 7 CH 4051 Basel, Switzerland E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: vsp-asp.ch President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter Burri Meets yearly during 3 days in the second half of June for the annual convention and excursion (Alps). Additional meetings for lecture October - April, announced separately.

THAILAND GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF THAILAND Department of Mineral Fuels 25th Floor Shinnawatra, Tower 3, Vibhavadi-Rungsit Rd. Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900 Thailand E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.thaigeology.com President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Songpope Polachan

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO P.O. Box 3524 La Romaine, Trinidad & Tobago Web site: www.gstt.org E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Helena Inniss

TURKEY TURKISH ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS Izmir Caddesi II, 47/14, 06440 Kizilay, Ankara, Turkey Web site: www.tpjd.org.tr President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mehmet Ozkanli Meets every two years, TPAO Research Center conference room.

UKRAINE ASSOCIATION OF UKRAINIAN GEOLOGISTS 7a, Naberezhno-Khreschatyska Kiev, Ukraine 4070 E-mail: [emailprotected] Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pavlo O. Zagorodnyuk

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES EMIRATES SOCIETY OF GEOSCIENCE (ESG) ADMA, P.O. Box 303, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E. E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.esg-uae.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Adbullah Al Shemsi Meets second Tuesday each month, Adnoc Club, Abu Dhabi.

UNITED KINGDOM ENERGY INSTITUTE 61 New Cavendish Street, London W1G 7AR, U.K. Web site: http://www.petroleum.co.uk E-mail: [emailprotected] Chairman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Joan MacNaughton

PETROLEUM EXPLORATION SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN 5th Floor, 9 Berkeley Street, London W1J 8 DW, UK E-mail: [emailprotected] (soc) Web site: www.pesgb.org.uk President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Austin Meets second Tuesday each month, excluding August, and holds various conferences.

UNITED STATES Alabama ALABAMA GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY Auburn University Department of Geology & Geography Petrie Hall, Room 207 Auburn, Alabama 36849 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://homepage.mac.com/jpashin/AGS.htm President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ashraf Uddin

Alaska ALASKA GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. P.O. Box 101288, Anchorage, Alaska, 99510 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.alaskageology.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arthur C. Banet, Jr.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN ASSOCIATION OF GEOLOGISTS 910 16th Street, Suite 1125 Denver, Colorado 80202 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.rmag.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Debra K. Higley

Monthly luncheon meetings held third Thursday from September to May or as announced. Free list of publications by request or via website.

Meets 11:30 a.m. first and third Friday each month, Denver Marmott City Center, 1701 California St., Denver, Colorado.



P. O. Box 2935 Fort Smith, Arkansas 72903 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.aogc.state.ar.us/FSGSinfo.htm President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James Jeffrey Gist

California COAST GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 3055 Ventura, California 93006 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.coastgeologicalsociety.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edward F. Magdaleno Dinner meetings are held monthly September through June, usually on the third Tuesday of the month, at the Poinsettia Pavilion, 3451 Foothill Road in Ventura. Social hour starts at 6:00 p.m., dinner is served at 7:00 p.m., and the talk starts at 8:00 p.m. The cost of dinner with reservations is $20 (members), $25 (non-members), or $10 (students and K-12 teachers); the talk is free. For reservations, please email Jerry Nichols ([emailprotected]) Reservations should be made by 4:00 p.m. on Friday before the meeting.

LOS ANGELES BASIN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY BreitBurn Energy LP 515 South Flower Street, Suite 4800 Los Angeles, California 90071 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.labgs.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jon Kuespert Meets monthly at The Grand at Willow Street Centre.

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 734 14th Street #2, San Francisco, California 94114-1166 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.ncgeolsoc.org

3635 Concorde Pkwy Suite 500 Chantilly, VA 20151–1125 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.gswweb.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Robert C. Burruss Refreshments start at 7:30pm. The formal program starts at 8:00pm. Meetings are held at the John Wesley Powell Auditorium 2170 Florida Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. Check website for details.

Florida EVERGLADES GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY XMWH Americas 2503 Del Prdo Blvd, South, Ste 430 Cape Coral, Florida 33904 E-mail: edward.rectenwald@mwhglobal President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ed Rectenwald

FLORIDA ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGISTS Aquatech GeoSciences Inc. 7438 Pinetree Lane Lake Clarke Shores, Florida 33406 E-mail (Soc.): [emailprotected] E-mail (Pres): [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.fapg.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helen Hickman

MIAMI GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY University of Miami, RSMAS/MGG 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, Florida 33149-1098 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.miamigeologicalsociety.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Donald F. McNeill

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tom Barry


Meets monthly September through May on the last Wednesday of the month at the Masonic Center, 9 Altarinda Road, Orinda, California, 6:30 p.m.

P.O. Box 1636 Tallahassee, Florida 32302 Pres. E-mail: [emailprotected] Society E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.segs.org

SACRAMENTO PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION Rio Delta Resources Inc. 3620 American River Dr., Ste. 105 Sacramento, California 95864 E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John Herbert Meets several times a year, various locations in Florida.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jerry Reedy Meets third Wednesday of each month, Jan.-Nov., Club Pheasant Restaurant, West Sacramento.


P.O. Box 1056, Bakersfield, California 93302 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.sjgs.com

University of Georgia Department of Geology 210 Field Street Athens, GA 30602-2501 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.westga.edu/~ggsweb

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vaughn Grant Thompson

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Paul A. Schroeder

Meets 6 p.m. second Tuesday each month, American Legion Hall, 2020 “H” Street, Bakersfield.

Meets annually during field trip; usually October or November, locations vary.


Colorado FOUR CORNERS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 1501, Duranago, Colorado, 81302 Web site: fourcornersgeologicalsociety.org E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David William Johnson Meets Fridays, Durango, Colorado or Farmington, New Mexico, date and time vary.

GRAND JUNCTION GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 4045 Grand Junction, Colorado 81502-4045 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Laurence O. Luebke Meets third Wednesday each month, September–May, Mesa State College.


Idaho IDAHO ASSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGISTS 1846 Springmeadow, Boise, Idaho 83706 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rich Reed Annual business meeting; monthly area meetings.

Illinois ILLINOIS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1271 Crestview Drive, Breese, Illinois 62230 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nate Caserotti Meets second Thursday evening each month, September–May, in various locations.




P.O. Box 30165 Indianapolis, Indiana 46230-1065 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.professionalgeologistsofindiana.org

P.O. Box 422, Jackson, Mississippi 39205-0422 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.missgeo.com

P.O. Box 82 Bismarck, ND 58502 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://ndgeosociety.tripod.com

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rob George

Indiana-Kentucky INDIANA-KENTUCKY GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. Reynolds Resources, Inc. 4530 Doe Run, Owensboro, Kentucky 42303 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Douglas W. Reynolds, Jr. Meets monthly with the exception of June, July, August, and December, various places in Kentucky and Illinois.

Iowa GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA Cornell College, Dept. of Geology Mount Vernon, Iowa 52314 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.iowageology.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rhawn Denniston


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Edgar James Files, Jr. Meets 11:30 a.m. second Tuesday each month, September–May, River Hills Country Club.


1590 Woodlake Drive Chesterfield, Missouri 63017 Web site: www.missourigeologists.org E-mail: [emailprotected]

SAIC 8866 Commons Blvd. Twinsburg, Ohio 44087 E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jerry Prewett

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Amanda Sprinzl

Meets in September or early October at various locations in Missouri.

Meets first Wednesday, September–May, excepting January, place varies.



P.O. Box 844, Billings, Montana 59103 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.montanags.com E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Andrew Urie Speaker dates and times are posted in the society’s newsletter

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David W. Clothier

Layne Christensen Co. P.O. Box 81864, Lincoln, Nebraska 68502 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: maps.unomaha.edu/ngs

Kentucky KENTUCKY SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL GEOLOGISTS University of Kentucky Lexington, Kentucky 40506 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Anna Watson Meets bi-monthly and holds annual banquet and field trip, seminars. Conducts several training workshops.

Louisiana BATON ROUGE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. Louisiana Geological Survey 5020 Waterford Drive Zachary, Louisiana 70791 E-mail: [emailprotected]

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thomas P. Van Biersel Meets second Friday of each month (Sept.–May), Mike Anderson Seafood Restaurant, 1031 West Lee Drive, meal at 11:30, Talk at 12:00.

LAFAYETTE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 51896, Lafayette, Louisiana 70505 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://lafayettegeologicalsociety.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .James John Willis Meets third Wednesday each month, Lafayette Petroleum Club.

NEW ORLEANS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. 810 Union Street, Suite 300, New Orleans, Louisianan 70112 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.nogs.org E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .William Revis Jorgensen Meets first Monday each month unless a holiday, then meets second Monday.


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bob Gjere Meets bimonthly during academic year.

Nevada NEVADA PETROLEUM SOCIETY, INC. P. O. Box 11526 Reno, Nevada 89510-1526 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.nbmg.unr.edu/nps/ President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John H. Snow Meets first Thursday each month September to May at Austin’s Restaurant, 7671 S. Virginia St., Reno, Nevada, at 6:30 p.m.

New Mexico ALBUQUERQUE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY WaterBank, 610 Gold Ave. SW, Ste. III Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .William Turner Meetings at 11:30 a.m. first Wednesday each month at Furr’s and Cafeteria, 6100 Central Ave. SE, Albuquerque. Visiting geologists and guests are welcome. Contact Bill Turner, (505) 843-7643 for program information.

NEW MEXICO GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY c/o New Mexico Bureau of Geology 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://nmgs.nmt.edu President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Greg Mack Meets during April spring meeting in Socorro; Fall Field Conference (September or October); place varies.



P. O. Box 750 Shreveport, LA 71162 Web site: www.sgs1.org E-mail: [emailprotected]

P.O. Box 1171, Roswell, New Mexico 88202 E-mail: [emailprotected] Website: www.roswellgeologicalsociety.org

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Larry Glen Frizzell

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David Bruce Codding Meets second Tuesday of each month, September–May.

Meets third Tuesday September–May, noon, Petroleum Club.


Meetings generally held on the third Tuesday of each month at the N.D. Heritage Center.


212 N. Market, Ste. 100 Wichita, Kansas 67202 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.kgslibrary.com

Meets in Wichita every Tuesday except the second Tuesday of the month in the fall and spring.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jeff Person


Office of Geological Survey P.O. Box 30256 Lansing, MI 48909-7756 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.mbgs.org

Dept. of Geosciences SUNY, Fredonia Fredonia, New York 14063 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.nysga.net

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Arlene Anderson-Vincent Meets second Wednesday each month., September–May; location varies.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gordon C. Baird Meets annually, various places in New York.


1477 Wildwood Drive Wooster, Ohio 44691 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.ohgeosoc.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John L. Wicks Meetings monthly September–May as announced by newsletter and e-mails. Location, date, and time vary.

Oklahoma ARDMORE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY North Texas Sample Log Service P.O. Box 1376, Gainesville, Texas 76241 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michael D. Allison Meets second Thursday, September–May, Chickasaw Lake Club. Meeting begins at 6 p.m. with social hour and supper followed by a a guest speaker.

OKLAHOMA CITY GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. 120 North Robinson, Suite 900 Center Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73102 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.ocgs.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gregory Blake Flournoy Luncheon meeting monthly from September through May at the Oklahoma History Museum; date varies.

TULSA GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. P.O. Box 700926, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74170-0926 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://tulsageology.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Richard Dale Fritz Luncheon meetings second and fourth Tuesday each month at 11:30 a.m., Tulsa Petroleum Club. dinner meetings on first Tuesday at 5:30 p.m., Tulsa Petroleum Club, September-May.

Oregon/Washington NORTHWEST ENERGY ASSOCIATION P.O. Box 6679 Portland, Oregon 97228-6679 E-mail: [emailprotected] Pres. E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://nwenergyassociation.org

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Garth Tallman Breakfast meetings held monthly September–May, usually on the second Friday of the month at the Multnomah Athletic Club, 1849 SW Salmon Street, Portland, 7:30–9:00 a.m. For information or reservations contact Steve Walti, [emailprotected]

Pennsylvania PITTSBURGH ASSOCIATION OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGISTS P.O. Box 2036, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 E-mail: [emailprotected] President E-mail: [emailprotected] Website: www.papgrocks.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Michael Aaron Jarvis Meets second Thursdays, September–May, Radisson Hotel in Greentree, Pennsylvania from 5-8 p.m. Meeting dates can vary as per speaker availability.

PITTSBURGH GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, INC. P.O. Box 58172, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15209 Web site: pittsburghgeologicalsociety.org E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Albert Kollar Meets third Wednesday of every month at Foster’s Restaurant, 10 Foster Plaza, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Restaurant.

Texas ABILENE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 974, Abilene, TX 79604-0974 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jared Haynes Hammett Meets third Thursday, September through May (excluding December)

AUSTIN GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 1302, Austin, Texas, 78767-1302 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.austingeosoc.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Peter R. Rose Meets first Monday of each month August through May.

CORPUS CHRISTI GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 1068 Corpus Christi, Texas 78403 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.ccgeo.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dennis Allan Taylor Meets third Wednesday each month, Sept.-May, Corpus Christi Town Club.

DALLAS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 4925 Greenville Avenue, Suite 200 Dallas, Texas 75206 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.dgs.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Charlotte Dillon Klenk Meets second Tuesday each month, September–May, Ellison Miles Geotechnology Institute, Building H, Room H114, 3939 Valley View Lane, Farmers Branch, Dallas, Texas 75244-4997.

EAST TEXAS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 102 North College, #612 Tyler, Texas, 75702 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.easttexasgeo.com President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Richard Leroy Adams Meets September–May, date and place vary.

EL PASO GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY El Paso Community College 919 Hunter El Paso, Texas 79915 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://elvis.geo.utep.edu/%7Eepgs



P.O. Box 17075, Fort Worth, Texas, 76102 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://fwgs.org

900 N. E. Loop 410, Suite D-100, San Antonio, Texas, 78209 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.stgs.org

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Roy Yates

Meetings second Wednesday each month, September–May at the Petroleum Club of San Antonio.

Meets 11:30 a.m. second Monday each month, September to April, Petroleum Club of Ft. Worth.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .John W. Stewart



Box 515 Olney, Texas 76374-0515 E-mail: [emailprotected] President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Glenn Henry Felderhoff

P.O. Box 1595, Midland, Texas 79702 E-mail: [emailprotected] President’s e-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.wtgs.org

Meets first Monday of each month except September.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .David B. Crass Meets second Tuesday each month, Midland Center.

HOUSTON GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 14811 St Mary’s Lane, Suite 250, Houston, Texas 77079 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.hgs.org


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Martin Macdermott Cassidy General dinner second Monday, lunch last Wednesday every month, September through June.

NORTH TEXAS GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY P.O. Box 1671, Wichita Falls, Texas 76307 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: www.southwestsection.org/north-texas President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lisa Leeann Black

P.O. Box 520100, Salt Lake City, Utah 84152 E-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.utahgeology.org President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Craig Dennis Morgan Meets second Monday each month, Department of Natural Resources, 1594 W. North Temple, Salt Lake City.


Meets third Thursday each month, September–May.

P.O. Box 2605, Charleston, West Virginia 25329 E-mail: [emailprotected]


President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .William O. Carpenter, II

Pablo Energy II, LLC 801 S. Fillmore, Ste. 130 Amarillo, Texas 79101 E-mail: [emailprotected]

Meets second Tuesday, September–May, at the Summit Conference Centre in Charleston.

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Nathan Alan Randolph


Meets third Wednesday of the month.

Suite 201, 4112 College Hills Blvd. San Angelo, Texas 76904-6591 E-mail: [emailprotected]

P.O. Box 545 Casper, Wyoming 82602-0545 E-mail: [emailprotected] President’s e-mail: [emailprotected] Web site: http://www.wyogeo.org/

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Russell C. Smith

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bruce Swartz

President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mike Hawks

Meets third Thursday each month, 12:00 noon, location varies.

Meetings to be announced

Meets each Friday, 11:30 a.m., Casper Petroleum Club.



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